Local agency in development, market and forest conservation interventions in Lao PDR’s northern uplands

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Cole , R , Brockhaus , M , Wong , G Y , Kallio , M H & Moeliono , M 2019 , ' Local agency in development, market and forest conservation interventions in Lao PDR’s northern uplands ' , South East Asian Studies , vol. 8 , no. 2 , pp. 173-202 . https://doi.org/10.20495/seas.8.2_173

Title: Local agency in development, market and forest conservation interventions in Lao PDR’s northern uplands
Author: Cole, Robert; Brockhaus, Maria; Wong, Grace Yee; Kallio, Maarit Helena; Moeliono, Moira
Contributor: University of Helsinki, International Forest Policy
University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences
Date: 2019-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 30
Belongs to series: South East Asian Studies
ISSN: 0563-8682
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/309221
Abstract: Themes of inclusion, empowerment, and participation are recurrent in development discourse and interventions, implying enablement of agency on the part of communities and individuals to inform and influence how policies that affect them are enacted. This article aims to contribute to debates on participation in rural development and environmental conservation, by applying a structure-agency lens to examine experiences of marginal farm households in three distinct systems of resource allocation in Lao PDR’s northern uplands—in other words, three institutional or (in)formal structures. These comprise livelihood development and poverty reduction projects, maize contract farming, and a national protected area. Drawing on qualitative data from focus group discussions and household surveys, the article explores the degree to which farmers may shape their engagement with the different systems, and ways in which agency may be enabled or disabled by this engagement. Our findings show that although some development interventions provide consultative channels for expressing needs, these are often within limited options set from afar. The market-based maize system, while in some ways agency-enabling, also entailed narrow choices and heavy dependence on external actors. The direct regulation of the protected area system meanwhile risked separating policy decisions from existing local knowledge. Our analytical approach moves beyond notions of agency commonly focused on decision-making and/or resistance, and instead revisits the structure-agency dichotomy to build a nuanced understanding of people’s lived experiences of interventions. This allows for fresh perspectives on the everyday enablement or disablement of agency, aiming to support policy that is better grounded in local realities. Keywords: agency, participation, rural development, forests, conservation, Lao PDR
Subject: 4112 Forestry
1172 Environmental sciences
CAPACITY
LAND
LESSONS
Lao PDR
MANAGEMENT
PEOPLES
PROTECTED AREA
REDD PLUS
RESETTLEMENT
RESISTANCE
RESOURCES
agency
conservation
forests
participation
rural development
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