Diversity of fungus-growing termites (Macrotermes) and their fungal symbionts (Termitomyces) in the semiarid Tsavo Ecosystem, Kenya.

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Vesala , R , Niskanen , T , Liimatainen , K , Boga , H , Pellikka , P & Rikkinen , J 2017 , ' Diversity of fungus-growing termites ( Macrotermes ) and their fungal symbionts ( Termitomyces ) in the semiarid Tsavo Ecosystem, Kenya. ' , Biotropica , vol. 49 , no. 3 , pp. 402-412 . https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12422

Title: Diversity of fungus-growing termites (Macrotermes) and their fungal symbionts (Termitomyces) in the semiarid Tsavo Ecosystem, Kenya.
Author: Vesala, Risto; Niskanen, Tuula; Liimatainen, Kare; Boga, Hamadi; Pellikka, Petri; Rikkinen, Jouko
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Department of Geosciences and Geography
University of Helsinki, Biosciences








Date: 2017-05
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Biotropica
ISSN: 0006-3606
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12422
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/309859
Abstract: Fungus-growing termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae together with their highly specialized fungal symbionts (Termitomyces) are primary decomposers of dead plant matter in many African savanna ecosystems. The termites provide crucial ecosystem services also by modifying soil properties, translocating nutrients, and as important drivers of plant succession. Despite their obvious ecological importance, many basic features in the biology of fungus-growing termites and especially their fungal symbionts remain poorly known, and no studies have so far focused on possible habitat-level differences in symbiont diversity across heterogeneous landscapes. We studied the species identities of Macrotermes termites and their Termitomyces symbionts by excavating 143 termite mounds at eight study sites in the semiarid Tsavo Ecosystem of southern Kenya. Reference specimens were identified by sequencing the COI region from termites and the ITS region from symbiotic fungi. The results demonstrate that the regional Macrotermes community in Tsavo includes two sympatric species (M. subhyalinus and M. michaelseni) which cultivate and largely share three species of Termitomyces symbionts. A single species of fungus is always found in each termite mound, but even closely adjacent colonies of the same termite species often house evolutionarily divergent fungi. The species identities of both partners vary markedly between sites, suggesting hitherto unknown differences in their ecological requirements. It is apparent that both habitat heterogeneity and disturbance history can influence the regional distribution patterns of both partners in symbiosis.
Subject: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
Basidiomycota
habitat ecology
Lyophyllaceae
Macrotermitinae
savanna
specificity
symbiosis
PHYLOGENETIC-RELATIONSHIPS
MOUNDS
ISOPTERA
MICHAELSENI
SAVANNA
TRANSMISSION
STABILIZES
HYPOTHESIS
NATALENSIS
EVOLUTION
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