Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis

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Lyczakowski , J J , Bourdon , M , Terrett , O M , Helariutta , Y , Wightman , R & Dupree , P 2019 , ' Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis ' , Frontiers in plant science , vol. 10 , 1398 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01398

Title: Structural Imaging of Native Cryo-Preserved Secondary Cell Walls Reveals the Presence of Macrofibrils and Their Formation Requires Normal Cellulose, Lignin and Xylan Biosynthesis
Author: Lyczakowski, Jan J.; Bourdon, Matthieu; Terrett, Oliver M.; Helariutta, Ykä; Wightman, Raymond; Dupree, Paul
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS)


Date: 2019-10-23
Language: eng
Number of pages: 14
Belongs to series: Frontiers in plant science
ISSN: 1664-462X
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01398
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/310944
Abstract: The woody secondary cell walls of plants are the largest repository of renewable carbon biopolymers on the planet. These walls are made principally from cellulose and hemicelluloses and are impregnated with lignin. Despite their importance as the main load bearing structure for plant growth, as well as their industrial importance as both a material and energy source, the precise arrangement of these constituents within the cell wall is not yet fully understood. We have adapted low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) for imaging the nanoscale architecture of angiosperm and gymnosperm cell walls in their native hydrated state. Our work confirms that cell wall macrofibrils, cylindrical structures with a diameter exceeding 10 nm, are a common feature of the native hardwood and softwood samples. We have observed these same structures in Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell walls, enabling macrofibrils to be compared between mutant lines that are perturbed in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin formation. Our analysis indicates that the macrofibrils in Arabidopsis cell walls are dependent upon the proper biosynthesis, or composed, of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. This study establishes that cryo-SEM is a useful additional approach for investigating the native nanoscale architecture and composition of hardwood and softwood secondary cell walls and demonstrates the applicability of Arabidopsis genetic resources to relate fibril structure with wall composition and biosynthesis.
Subject: scanning electron microscopy
cell walls
macrofibrils
cellulose
xylan
lignin
softwood
hardwood
WOOD-DENSITY
MICROFIBRILS
POLYSACCHARIDES
SUBSTITUTION
GLUCURONOXYLAN
DISRUPTION
DEPOSITION
PATTERNS
ENCODES
SPRUCE
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
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