New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere : From Molecular Clusters to Global Climate

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Lee , S-H , Gordon , H , Yu , H , Lehtipalo , K , Haley , R , Li , Y & Zhang , R 2019 , ' New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere : From Molecular Clusters to Global Climate ' , Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres , vol. 124 , no. 13 , pp. 7098-7146 . https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029356

Title: New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere : From Molecular Clusters to Global Climate
Author: Lee, Shan-Hu; Gordon, Hamish; Yu, Huan; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Haley, Ryan; Li, Yixin; Zhang, Renyi
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)
Date: 2019-07-16
Language: eng
Number of pages: 49
Belongs to series: Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres
ISSN: 2169-897X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/311693
Abstract: New particle formation (NPF) represents the first step in the complex processes leading to formation of cloud condensation nuclei. Newly formed nanoparticles affect human health, air quality, weather, and climate. This review provides a brief history, synthesizes recent significant progresses, and outlines the challenges and future directions for research relevant to NPF. New developments include the emergence of state-of-the-art instruments that measure prenucleation clusters and newly nucleated nanoparticles down to about 1 nm; systematic laboratory studies of multicomponent nucleation systems, including collaborative experiments conducted in the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at CERN; observations of NPF in different types of forests, extremely polluted urban locations, coastal sites, polar regions, and high-elevation sites; and improved nucleation theories and parameterizations to account for NPF in atmospheric models. The challenges include the lack of understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms responsible for aerosol nucleation and growth under diverse environments, the effects of SO2 and NOx on NPF, and the contribution of anthropogenic organic compounds to NPF. It is also critical to develop instruments that can detect chemical composition of particles from 3 to 20 nm and improve parameterizations to represent NPF over a wide range of atmospheric conditions of chemical precursor, temperature, and humidity. Plain Language Summary In the atmosphere, invisible to the human eye, there are many microscopic particles, or nanoparticles, that affect human health, air quality, and climate. We do not fully understand the chemical processes that allow these fine particles to form and be suspended in the air nor how they influence heat flow in Earth's atmosphere. Laboratory experiments, field observations, and modeling simulations have all shown different results for how these particles behave. These inconsistencies make it difficult to accurately represent the processes of new particle formation in regional and global atmospheric models. Scientists still need to develop instruments that can measure the smallest range of nanoparticles and to find ways to describe particle formation that allow for differences in temperature, humidity, and level of pollution.
Subject: new particle formation
nucleation and growth
CCN
sulfuric acid
ammonia
HOMs
ION-INDUCED NUCLEATION
NUMBER SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
IONIZATION MASS-SPECTROMETER
CLOUD-CONDENSATION NUCLEI
BINARY HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEATION
SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL
YANGTZE-RIVER DELTA
DIFFERENTIAL MOBILITY ANALYZER
SULFURIC-ACID CONCENTRATION
CHEMICAL-TRANSPORT MODEL
114 Physical sciences
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