Source apportionment of particle number size distribution in urban background and traffic stations in four European cities

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Rivas , I , Beddows , D C S , Amato , F , Green , D C , Jarvi , L , Hueglin , C , Reche , C , Timonen , H , Fuller , G W , Niemi , J , Perez , N , Aurela , M , Hopke , P K , Alastuey , A , Kulmala , M , Harrison , R M , Querol , X & Kelly , F J 2020 , ' Source apportionment of particle number size distribution in urban background and traffic stations in four European cities ' , Environment International , vol. 135 , 105345 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105345

Title: Source apportionment of particle number size distribution in urban background and traffic stations in four European cities
Author: Rivas, Ioar; Beddows, David C. S.; Amato, Fulvio; Green, David C.; Jarvi, Leena; Hueglin, Christoph; Reche, Cristina; Timonen, Hilkka; Fuller, Gary W.; Niemi, Jarkko; Perez, Noemi; Aurela, Minna; Hopke, Philip K.; Alastuey, Andres; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M.; Querol, Xavier; Kelly, Frank J.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)
University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)
Date: 2020-02
Language: eng
Number of pages: 19
Belongs to series: Environment International
ISSN: 0160-4120
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/312129
Abstract: Ultrafine particles (UFP) are suspected of having significant impacts on health. However, there have only been a limited number of studies on sources of UFP compared to larger particles. In this work, we identified and quantified the sources and processes contributing to particle number size distributions (PNSD) using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) at six monitoring stations (four urban background and two street canyon) from four European cities: Barcelona, Helsinki, London, and Zurich. These cities are characterised by different meteorological conditions and emissions. The common sources across all stations were Photonucleation, traffic emissions (3 sources, from fresh to aged emissions: Traffic nucleation, Fresh traffic – mode diameter between 13 and 37 nm, and Urban – mode diameter between 44 and 81 nm, mainly traffic but influenced by other sources in some cities), and Secondary particles. The Photonucleation factor was only directly identified by PMF for Barcelona, while an additional split of the Nucleation factor (into Photonucleation and Traffic nucleation) by using NOx concentrations as a proxy for traffic emissions was performed for all other stations. The sum of all traffic sources resulted in a maximum relative contributions ranging from 71 to 94% (annual average) thereby being the main contributor at all stations. In London and Zurich, the relative contribution of the sources did not vary significantly between seasons. In contrast, the high levels of solar radiation in Barcelona led to an important contribution of Photonucleation particles (ranging from 14% during the winter period to 35% during summer). Biogenic emissions were a source identified only in Helsinki (both in the urban background and street canyon stations), that contributed importantly during summer (23% in urban background). Airport emissions contributed to Nucleation particles at urban background sites, as the highest concentrations of this source took place when the wind was blowing from the airport direction in all cities.
Subject: 114 Physical sciences
Positive Matrix Factorization
Ultrafine particles
Particle number size distributions
Photonucleation
Traffic emissions
Airport emissions
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