Critical-sized cartilage defects in the equine carpus

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Salonius , E , Rieppo , L , Nissi , M J , Pulkkinen , H J , Brommer , H , Bruenott , A , Silvast , T S , Van Weeren , P R , Muhonen , V , Brama , P A J & Kiviranta , I 2019 , ' Critical-sized cartilage defects in the equine carpus ' , Connective Tissue Research , vol. 60 , no. 2 , pp. 95-106 .

Title: Critical-sized cartilage defects in the equine carpus
Author: Salonius, Eve; Rieppo, Lassi; Nissi, Mikko J.; Pulkkinen, Hertta J.; Brommer, Harold; Bruenott, Anne; Silvast, Tuomo S.; Van Weeren, P. Rene; Muhonen, Virpi; Brama, Pieter A. J.; Kiviranta, Ilkka
Contributor organization: I kirurgian klinikka (Töölö)
Department of Surgery
HUS Musculoskeletal and Plastic Surgery
Date: 2019-03-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Connective Tissue Research
ISSN: 0300-8207
Abstract: Aim: The horse joint, due to its similarity with the human joint, is the ultimate model for translational articular cartilage repair studies. This study was designed to determine the critical size of cartilage defects in the equine carpus and serve as a benchmark for the evaluation of new cartilage treatment options. Material and Methods: Circular full-thickness cartilage defects with a diameter of 2, 4, and 8 mm were created in the left middle carpal joint and similar osteochondral (3.5 mm in depth) defects in the right middle carpal joint of 5 horses. Spontaneously formed repair tissue was examined macroscopically, with MR and mu CT imaging, polarized light microscopy, standard histology, and immunohistochemistry at 12 months. Results: Filling of 2 mm chondral defects was good (77.8 +/- 8.5%), but proteoglycan depletion was evident in Safranin-O staining and gadolinium-enhanced MRI (T-1Gd). Larger chondral defects showed poor filling (50.6 +/- 2.7% in 4 mm and 31.9 +/- 7.3% in 8 mm defects). Lesion filling in 2, 4, and 8 mm osteochondral defects was 82.3 +/- 3.0%, 68.0 +/- 4.6% and 70.8 +/- 15.4%, respectively. Type II collagen staining was seen in 9/15 osteochondral defects but only in 1/15 chondral defects. Subchondral bone pathologies were evident in 14/15 osteochondral samples but only in 5/15 chondral samples. Although osteochondral lesions showed better neotissue quality than chondral lesions, the overall repair was deemed unsatisfactory because of the subchondral bone pathologies. Conclusion: We recommend classifying 4 mm as critical osteochondral lesion size and 2 mm as critical chondral lesion size for cartilage repair research in the equine carpal joint model.
Subject: Animal model
cartilage repair
critical-sized defect
preclinical research
spontaneous repair
1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: unspecified
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: acceptedVersion

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