Astrocyte alterations in neurodegenerative pathologies and their modeling in human induced pluripotent stem cell platforms

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/312726

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Oksanen , M , Lehtonen , S , Jaronen , M , Goldsteins , G , Hämäläinen , R H & Koistinaho , J 2019 , ' Astrocyte alterations in neurodegenerative pathologies and their modeling in human induced pluripotent stem cell platforms ' , Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , vol. 76 , no. 14 , pp. 2739-2760 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03111-7

Title: Astrocyte alterations in neurodegenerative pathologies and their modeling in human induced pluripotent stem cell platforms
Author: Oksanen, Minna; Lehtonen, Sarka; Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Koistinaho, Jari
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Neuroscience Center
University of Helsinki, University of Eastern Finland
University of Helsinki, Neuroscience Center


Date: 2019-04-23
Language: eng
Number of pages: 22
Belongs to series: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
ISSN: 1420-9071
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03111-7
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/312726
Abstract: Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain. They were long considered only as passive support for neuronal cells. However, recent data have revealed many active roles for these cells both in maintenance of the normal physiological homeostasis in the brain as well as in neurodegeneration and disease. Moreover, human astrocytes have been found to be much more complex than their rodent counterparts, and to date, astrocytes are known to actively participate in a multitude of processes such as neurotransmitter uptake and recycling, gliotransmitter release, neuroenergetics, inflammation, modulation of synaptic activity, ionic balance, maintenance of the blood–brain barrier, and many other crucial functions of the brain. This review focuses on the role of astrocytes in human neurodegenerative disease and the potential of the novel stem cell-based platforms in modeling astrocytic functions in health and in disease.
Subject: ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN AGGREGATION
ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
AMYOTROPHIC-LATERAL-SCLEROSIS
Alzheimer's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Astrocytes
BETA-AMYLOID PEPTIDES
BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER
MOUSE MODEL
Neurodegeneration
P-GLYCOPROTEIN FUNCTION
PARKINSONS-DISEASE
Parkinson's disease
SPINAL-CORD
TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR
3112 Neurosciences
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