Toxicity, Physiological, and Ultrastructural Effects of Arsenic and Cadmium on the Extremophilic Microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila

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dc.contributor.author Díaz, Silvia
dc.contributor.author De Francisco, Patricia
dc.contributor.author Olsson, Sanna
dc.contributor.author Aguilera, Ángeles
dc.contributor.author González-Toril, Elena
dc.contributor.author Martín-González, Ana
dc.date.accessioned 2020-03-13T13:09:22Z
dc.date.available 2020-03-13T13:09:22Z
dc.date.issued 2020-03-03
dc.identifier.citation Díaz, S.; De Francisco, P.; Olsson, S.; Aguilera, Á.; González-Toril, E.; Martín-González, A. Toxicity, Physiological, and Ultrastructural Effects of Arsenic and Cadmium on the Extremophilic Microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1650.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/313294
dc.description.abstract The cytotoxicity of cadmium (Cd), arsenate (As(V)), and arsenite (As(III)) on a strain of <i>Chlamydomonas acidophila</i>, isolated from the Rio Tinto, an acidic environment containing high metal(l)oid concentrations, was analyzed. We used a broad array of methods to produce complementary information: cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation measures, ultrastructural observations, transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (TEM&ndash;XEDS), and gene expression. This acidophilic microorganism was affected differently by the tested metal/metalloid: It showed high resistance to arsenic while Cd was the most toxic heavy metal, showing an LC<sub>50</sub> = 1.94 &micro;M. Arsenite was almost four-fold more toxic (LC<sub>50</sub>= 10.91 mM) than arsenate (LC<sub>50</sub> = 41.63 mM). Assessment of ROS generation indicated that both arsenic oxidation states generate superoxide anions. Ultrastructural analysis of exposed cells revealed that stigma, chloroplast, nucleus, and mitochondria were the main toxicity targets. Intense vacuolization and accumulation of energy reserves (starch deposits and lipid droplets) were observed after treatments. Electron-dense intracellular nanoparticle-like formation appeared in two cellular locations: inside cytoplasmic vacuoles and entrapped into the capsule, around each cell. The chemical nature (Cd or As) of these intracellular deposits was confirmed by TEM&ndash;XEDS. Additionally, they also contained an unexpected high content in phosphorous, which might support an essential role of poly-phosphates in metal resistance.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
dc.title Toxicity, Physiological, and Ultrastructural Effects of Arsenic and Cadmium on the Extremophilic Microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila en
dc.date.updated 2020-03-13T13:09:22Z
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/entityType/JournalArticle
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/entityType/Expression
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/entityType/Expression

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