Obesity and eating behavior from the perspective of twin and genetic research

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Silventoinen , K & Konttinen , H 2020 , ' Obesity and eating behavior from the perspective of twin and genetic research ' , Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews , vol. 109 , pp. 150-165 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.12.012

Title: Obesity and eating behavior from the perspective of twin and genetic research
Author: Silventoinen, Karri; Konttinen, Hanna
Contributor organization: Helsinki Inequality Initiative (INEQ)
Population Research Unit (PRU)
Center for Population, Health and Society
Sociology
Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki
Doctoral Programme in Social Sciences
Social Psychology
HUS Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District
Date: 2020-02
Language: eng
Number of pages: 16
Belongs to series: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
ISSN: 0149-7634
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.12.012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/313345
Abstract: Obesity has dramatically increased during the last decades and is currently one of the most serious global health problems. We present a hypothesis that obesity is a neuro-behavioral disease having a strong genetic background mediated largely by eating behavior and is sensitive to the macro-environment; we study this hypothesis from the perspective of genetic research. Genetic family and genome-wide-association studies have shown well that body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) is a highly heritable and polygenic trait. New genetic variation of BMI emerges after early childhood. Candidate genes of BMI notably express in brain tissue, supporting that this new variation is related to behavior. Obesogenic environments at both childhood family and societal levels reinforce the genetic susceptibility to obesity. Genetic factors have a clear influence on macro-nutrient intake and appetite-related eating behavior traits. Results on the gene-by-diet interactions in obesity are mixed, but emerging evidence suggests that eating behavior traits partly mediate the effect of genes on BMI. However, more rigorous prospective study designs controlling for measurement bias are still needed.
Subject: Twins
Genetics
Obesity
BMI
Eating behavior
BODY-MASS INDEX
GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGES
ENVIRONMENTAL-INFLUENCES
WEIGHT-GAIN
FTO GENE
POOLED ANALYSIS
ADIPOSE-TISSUE
ENERGY-INTAKE
FOOD-INTAKE
5141 Sociology
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
3112 Neurosciences
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: unspecified
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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