Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

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dc.contributor.author Donsberg, Timo
dc.contributor.author Manoocheri, Farshid
dc.contributor.author Sildoja, Meelis
dc.contributor.author Juntunen, Mikko
dc.contributor.author Savin, Hele
dc.contributor.author Tuovinen, Esa
dc.contributor.author Ronkainen, Hannu
dc.contributor.author Prunnila, Mika
dc.contributor.author Merimaa, Mikko
dc.contributor.author Tang, Chi Kwong
dc.contributor.author Gran, Jarle
dc.contributor.author Mueller, Ingmar
dc.contributor.author Werner, Lutz
dc.contributor.author Rougie, Bernard
dc.contributor.author Pons, Alicia
dc.contributor.author Smid, Marek
dc.contributor.author Gal, Peter
dc.contributor.author Lolli, Lapo
dc.contributor.author Brida, Giorgio
dc.contributor.author Rastello, Maria Luisa
dc.contributor.author Ikonen, Erkki
dc.date.accessioned 2020-03-27T11:04:02Z
dc.date.available 2020-03-27T11:04:02Z
dc.date.issued 2017-12
dc.identifier.citation Donsberg , T , Manoocheri , F , Sildoja , M , Juntunen , M , Savin , H , Tuovinen , E , Ronkainen , H , Prunnila , M , Merimaa , M , Tang , C K , Gran , J , Mueller , I , Werner , L , Rougie , B , Pons , A , Smid , M , Gal , P , Lolli , L , Brida , G , Rastello , M L & Ikonen , E 2017 , ' Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes ' , Metrologia , vol. 54 , no. 6 , pp. 821-836 . https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed
dc.identifier.other PURE: 134284544
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 8345c5b7-304f-4c4a-9f99-20e9202ea95f
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000412385500003
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/313666
dc.description.abstract The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers. en
dc.format.extent 16
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Metrologia
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject radiometry
dc.subject induced junction
dc.subject silicon photodetector
dc.subject primary standard
dc.subject radiant flux
dc.subject ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
dc.subject SELF-CALIBRATION
dc.subject INVERSION LAYER
dc.subject ABSOLUTE
dc.subject ACCURACY
dc.subject JUNCTION
dc.subject NONLINEARITY
dc.subject METROLOGY
dc.subject TECHNOLOGY
dc.subject RADIATION
dc.subject 114 Physical sciences
dc.title Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes en
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.organization Helsinki Institute of Physics
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed
dc.relation.issn 0026-1394
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess

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