The Economy of Food : Tracing food production and consumption in the Castles of Kastelholm and Raseborg from the 14th to 16th centuries.

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-6017-1
Title: The Economy of Food : Tracing food production and consumption in the Castles of Kastelholm and Raseborg from the 14th to 16th centuries.
Author: Kivikero, Hanna
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts
Doctoral Programme in History and Cultural Heritage
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2020-05-09
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-6017-1
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/313968
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: Royal castles were part of a wider network that served many functions and tasks of the Swedish Kingdom. One of the most important functions for the networks was to transport foodstuffs to the centre of the medieval and early modern period Sweden, the castle of Stockholm. Tax articles from peasants were one part of the Crowns income together with production from the landed estates and Royal demesnes which were part of the castle governance. The zooarchaeological assemblages, as well as account books from two castles, Kastelhom on the Åland Islands and Raseborg on the west coast of Finland, were studied to see how the castles functioned in relationship to animal based food products and live animals. The aim was also to understand the reasons for possible differences between the castles. The faunal assemblages were analysed in order to investigate deposits of food waste and to understand how animals were used as resources on the sites. The assemblages were identified to species and observations on age, sex and cutmarks were recorded. The assemblages have the potential to enlighten what food products were consumed in the castles, where they came from and to what purposes the domestic animals were kept and utilised in the castles. The assemblages from Kastelholm were studied from the end of the 14th to 17th century. The assemblages from Raseborg dates to late 15th to mid-16th centuries. Account books from the two castles that were studied are from the mid-16th century where butchered livestock, fish and other hunted wild animals were recorded, as well as the consumed food products. The records show what kind of foodstuffs were consumed and what animals were kept in the castles, and they help to understand how the castle economy functioned during a short period of time. The combination of these two primary source materials show that livestock was kept in the nearby landed estates and Royal demesnes, and were likely butchered mainly during autumn. Livestock was butchered in similar ways at Kastelholm and Raseborg which suggests a sort of standard to the practice. Fish was an important source of food, especially on the Åland Islands where marine resources were used in higher extent. The wild fauna and how the livestock were managed show a different adaptation to different landscape. The taxation was flexible to both annual and seasonal variation in resource availability. Seasonal changes in the environment would dictate the periods for high intensity fishing and hunting periods, as well as the changes from keeping livestock inside and out on the pasture. Seasons would also be important to the availability of different foodstuffs which marked the significance of preserved foods. The variations are evident in the account books. The study shows that animals were important for the food economy of the castles. Livestock and wild fauna were central for the subsistence of the Royal castles, but also for the Crown in general. By combining two different primary source materials from the same sites, it has been possible to get a larger picture of the animals and animal products that were consumed in the castles and how they were produced.Slott i medeltida och tidigmoderna Sverige är facinerande monumentala komplex som har haft olika funktioner för olika människor. De var också delar i ett omfattande nätverk som fungerade bland annat för att redistribuera livsmedel. Ekonomin I den undersökta perioden är I huvudsak en bytesekonomi även om monetariseringen slagit igenom inom vissa omländer. Slotten fungerade också som insamlings centrum för skatteprodukter, samtidigt som de hade produktionskrav från Kronan på livsmedel och djur. För att undersöka betydelsen av djur i slottsekonomin, studerades två primära källmaterial, arkeologisk benmaterial och räkenskaper, från två olika slott: Kastelholms slott på Åland och Raseborgs slott i sydvästra Finland. Benmaterialen analyserades för att förstå djurens roll som ekonomisk resurs, till exempel i vilken ålder djur slaktades, vilka delar som konsumerades och vilka vilda arter som fiskades och jagades för att äta. Materialet kommer från olika arkeologiska utgrävningar och representerar främst avfall. Räkenskaper däremot, visar en annan sida av slottsekonomin. I räkenskaperna dokumenterades olika produkter, djur och andra fenomen som hade ett ekonomisk värde för slotten och riket. Genom att studera, analysera och sammanfatta information från dessa två material kan man se att den grundläggande funktionen kring djur och mat är densamma i de två slott. Boskapsskötseln har fungerat som en bas där fisk, fågel och annat vilt har satt en lokal prägel på konsumption. På Åland är det tydligt att den marina miljön har påverkat resursutnyttjandet. Det är också tydligt att hela Åland inte har fungerat på samma sätt, jordbruk och boskapsskötsel har större betydelse på Fasta Åland än i skärgård. I Raseborg, däremot, har fisket mindre betydelse och tyngdpunkten ligger i utnyttjandet av jordbruksmark och skog. Säsongerna styrde alla delar av försörjningsekonomin med jordbruk, boskapsskötsel, jakt och fiske. All mat som inte konsumerades färskt, skulle förvaras. De vanligaste konserveringsmetoderna var torkning och saltning. På 1500-talet ser det ut att även torkade produkter var lite saltade. Studien visar att djur och djurhållning var basen I den livsmedelsbaserade slottsekonomin. En mera detaljerad helhetsbild av slottsekonomin har kunnat skapas genom kombination av två primärkällmaterial.
Subject: arkeologia
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