Characterization of JAK1 Pseudokinase Domain in Cytokine Signaling

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/314716

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Raivola , J , Haikarainen , T & Silvennoinen , O 2020 , ' Characterization of JAK1 Pseudokinase Domain in Cytokine Signaling ' , Cancers , vol. 12 , no. 1 , 78 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010078

Title: Characterization of JAK1 Pseudokinase Domain in Cytokine Signaling
Author: Raivola, Juuli; Haikarainen, Teemu; Silvennoinen, Olli
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Life Science HiLIFE


Date: 2020-01
Language: eng
Number of pages: 20
Belongs to series: Cancers
ISSN: 2072-6694
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010078
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/314716
Abstract: The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein (JAK-STAT) pathway mediates essential biological functions from immune responses to haematopoiesis. Deregulated JAK-STAT signaling causes myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukaemia, and lymphomas, as well as autoimmune diseases. Thereby JAKs have gained significant relevance as therapeutic targets. However, there is still a clinical need for better JAK inhibitors and novel strategies targeting regions outside the conserved kinase domain have gained interest. In-depth knowledge about the molecular details of JAK activation is required. For example, whether the function and regulation between receptors is conserved remains an open question. We used JAK-deficient cell-lines and structure-based mutagenesis to study the function of JAK1 and its pseudokinase domain (JH2) in cytokine signaling pathways that employ JAK1 with different JAK heterodimerization partner. In interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced STAT5 activation JAK1 was dominant over JAK3 but in interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) signaling both JAK1 and heteromeric partner JAK2 or TYK2 were both indispensable for STAT1 activation. Moreover, IL-2 signaling was strictly dependent on both JAK1 JH1 and JH2 but in IFN gamma signaling JAK1 JH2 rather than kinase activity was required for STAT1 activation. To investigate the regulatory function, we focused on two allosteric regions in JAK1 JH2, the ATP-binding pocket and the alpha C-helix. Mutating L633 at the alpha C reduced basal and cytokine induced activation of STAT in both JAK1 wild-type (WT) and constitutively activated mutant backgrounds. Moreover, biochemical characterization and comparison of JH2s let us depict differences in the JH2 ATP-binding and strengthen the hypothesis that de-stabilization of the domain disturbs the regulatory JH1-JH2 interaction. Collectively, our results bring mechanistic understanding about the function of JAK1 in different receptor complexes that likely have relevance for the design of specific JAK modulators.
Subject: JAK
STAT
cytokine
cytokine receptor
cancer
inflammation
STRUCTURAL BASIS
TYROSINE KINASE
ACUTE LEUKEMIAS
PROTEIN-KINASE
IFN-GAMMA
ACTIVATION
RECEPTOR
MECHANISM
ALPHA
TRANSDUCTION
3122 Cancers
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