Scaling up the effects of inbreeding depression from individuals to metapopulations

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Nonaka , E , Sirén , J , Somervuo , P , Ruokolainen , L , Ovaskainen , O & Hanski , I 2019 , ' Scaling up the effects of inbreeding depression from individuals to metapopulations ' , Journal of Animal Ecology , vol. 88 , no. 8 , pp. 1202-1214 .

Title: Scaling up the effects of inbreeding depression from individuals to metapopulations
Author: Nonaka, Etsuko; Sirén, Jukka; Somervuo, Panu; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilkka
Contributor organization: Biosciences
Centre of Excellence in Metapopulation Research
Research Centre for Ecological Change
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme
Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
Ilkka Hanski / Principal Investigator
Veijo Kaitala / Principal Investigator
Otso Ovaskainen / Principal Investigator
Date: 2019-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 13
Belongs to series: Journal of Animal Ecology
ISSN: 0021-8790
Abstract: Abstract Inbreeding is common in nature, and many laboratory studies have documented that inbreeding depression can reduce the fitness of individuals. Demonstrating the consequences of inbreeding depression on the growth and persistence of populations is more challenging because populations are often regulated by density- or frequency-dependent selection and influenced by demographic and environmental stochasticity. A few empirical studies have shown that inbreeding depression can increase extinction risk of local populations. The importance of inbreeding depression at the metapopulation level has been conjectured based on population-level studies but has not been evaluated. We quantified the impact of inbreeding depression affecting the fitness of individuals on metapopulation persistence in heterogeneous habitat networks of different sizes and habitat configuration in a context of natural butterfly metapopulations. We developed a spatial individual-based simulation model of metapopulations with explicit genetics. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation to fit the model to extensive demographic, genetic, and life-history data available for the well-studied Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) metapopulations in the Åland islands in SW Finland. We compared 18 semi-independent habitat networks differing in size and fragmentation. The results show that inbreeding is more frequent in small habitat networks, and consequently, inbreeding depression elevates extinction risks in small metapopulations. Metapopulation persistence and neutral genetic diversity maintained in the metapopulations increase with the total habitat amount in and mean patch size of habitat networks. Dispersal and mating behavior interact with landscape structure to determine how likely it is to encounter kin while looking for mates. Inbreeding depression can decrease the viability of small metapopulations even when they are strongly influenced by stochastic extinction-colonization dynamics and density-dependent selection. The findings from this study support that genetic factors, in addition to demographic factors, can contribute to extinctions of small local populations and also of metapopulations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Glanville fritillary butterfly
Melitaea cinxia
inbreeding depression
individual-based model
metapopulation persistence
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: unspecified
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: acceptedVersion

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