Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon

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Mobley , K B , Granroth-Wilding , H , Ellmen , M , Orell , P , Erkinaro , J & Primmer , C R 2020 , ' Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon ' , Molecular Ecology , vol. 29 , no. 6 , pp. 1173-1184 . https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15390

Title: Time spent in distinct life-history stages has sex-specific effects on reproductive fitness in wild Atlantic salmon
Author: Mobley, Kenyon B.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna; Ellmen, Mikko; Orell, Panu; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Evolution, Conservation, and Genomics
University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
Date: 2020-03
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Molecular Ecology
ISSN: 0962-1083
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/317165
Abstract: Abstract In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment as adults (sea age, SW, measured in sea winters) on 264 sexually mature adults collected on a river spawning ground. We then estimated reproductive fitness as the number of offspring (reproductive success) and the number of mates (mating success) using genetic parentage analysis (>5000 offspring). Sea age is significantly and positively correlated with reproductive and mating success of both sexes whereby older and larger individuals gained the highest reproductive fitness benefits (females: 62.2% increase in offspring/SW and 34.8% increase in mate number/SW; males: 201.9% offspring/SW and 60.3% mates/SW). Younger freshwater age was significantly related to older sea age and thus increased reproductive fitness, but only among females (females: -33.9% offspring/FW and -32.4% mates/FW). This result implies that females can obtain higher reproductive fitness by transitioning to the marine environment earlier. In contrast, male mating and reproductive success was unaffected by freshwater age and more males returned at a younger age than females despite the reproductive fitness advantage of later sea age maturation. Our results show that the timing of transitions between juvenile and adult phases has a sex-specific consequence on female reproductive fitness, demonstrating a life-history trade-off between maturation and reproduction in wild Atlantic salmon.
Subject: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
life-history
mating success
reproductive success
sexual conflict
sexual selection
trade-off
MIGRATION
GROWTH-RATE
SIZE
SUB-ARCTIC RIVER
MATURITY
MATURATION
life history
SELECTION
MATING SYSTEMS
SALAR
AGE
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