Social learning within and across predator species reduces attacks on novel aposematic prey

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Hämäläinen , L , Mappes , J , Rowland , H M , Teichmann , M & Thorogood , R 2020 , ' Social learning within and across predator species reduces attacks on novel aposematic prey ' , Journal of Animal Ecology , vol. 89 , no. 5 , pp. 1153-1164 . https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13180

Title: Social learning within and across predator species reduces attacks on novel aposematic prey
Author: Hämäläinen, Liisa; Mappes, Johanna; Rowland, Hannah M.; Teichmann, Marianne; Thorogood, Rose
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
Date: 2020-05
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Journal of Animal Ecology
ISSN: 0021-8790
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/317340
Abstract: To make adaptive foraging decisions, predators need to gather information about the profitability of prey. As well as learning from prey encounters, recent studies show that predators can learn about prey defences by observing the negative foraging experiences of conspecifics. However, predator communities are complex. While observing heterospecifics may increase learning opportunities, we know little about how social information use varies across predator species. Social transmission of avoidance among predators also has potential consequences for defended prey. Conspicuous aposematic prey are assumed to be an easy target for naive predators, but this cost may be reduced if multiple predators learn by observing single predation events. Heterospecific information use by predators might further benefit aposematic prey, but this remains untested. Here we test conspecific and heterospecific information use across a predator community with wild-caught blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major). We used video playback to manipulate social information about novel aposematic prey and then compared birds' foraging choices in 'a small-scale novel world' that contained novel palatable and aposematic prey items. We expected that blue tits would be less likely to use social information compared to great tits. However, we found that both blue tits and great tits consumed fewer aposematic prey after observing a negative foraging experience of a demonstrator. In fact, this effect was stronger in blue tits compared to great tits. Interestingly, blue tits also learned more efficiently from watching conspecifics, whereas great tits learned similarly regardless of the demonstrator species. Together, our results indicate that social transmission about novel aposematic prey occurs in multiple predator species and across species boundaries. This supports the idea that social interactions among predators can reduce attacks on aposematic prey and therefore influence selection for prey defences.
Subject: aposematism
avoidance learning
conspecific information
heterospecific information
predator–prey interactions
social learning
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
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