Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from different surface types in a created urban wetland

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Li , X , Wahlroos , O M , Haapanala , S , Pumpanen , J , Vasander , H , Ojala , A , Vesala , T & Mammarella , I 2020 , ' Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from different surface types in a created urban wetland ' , Biogeosciences , vol. 17 , no. 13 , pp. 3409-3425 . https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-3409-2020

Title: Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from different surface types in a created urban wetland
Author: Li, Xuefei; Wahlroos, Outi Marjatta; Haapanala, Sami; Pumpanen, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Ojala, Anne; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Micrometeorology and biogeochemical cycles
University of Helsinki, Palustrine Design Oy
University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences
University of Helsinki, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme
University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)
University of Helsinki, INAR Physics










Date: 2020-07-06
Language: eng
Number of pages: 17
Belongs to series: Biogeosciences
ISSN: 1726-4170
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-3409-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/317722
Abstract: Many wetlands have been drained due to urbanization, agriculture, forestry or other purposes, which has resulted in a loss of their ecosystem services. To protect receiving waters and to achieve services such as flood control and storm water quality mitigation, new wetlands are created in urbanized areas. However, our knowledge of greenhouse gas exchange in newly created wetlands in urban areas is currently limited. In this paper we present measurements carried out at a created urban wetland in Southern Finland in the boreal climate. We conducted measurements of ecosystem CO2 flux and CH4 flux (FCH4) at the created storm water wetland Gateway in Nummela, Vihti, Southern Finland, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The measurements were commenced the fourth year after construction and lasted for 1 full year and two subsequent growing seasons. Besides ecosystemscale fluxes measured by the EC tower, the diffusive CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the open-water areas (FwCO(2) and FwCH(4), respectively) were modelled based on measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentration in the water. Fluxes from the vegetated areas were estimated by applying a simple mixing model using the above-mentioned fluxes and the footprintweighted fractional area. The half-hourly footprint-weighted contribution of diffusive fluxes from open water ranged from 0% to 25.5% in 2013. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the studied wetland was 8.0 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 18:9 and 34.9 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), and FCH4 was 3.9 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 3.75 and 4.07 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The ecosystem sequestered CO2 during summer months (June-August), while the rest of the year it was a CO2 source. CH4 displayed strong seasonal dynamics, higher in summer and lower in winter, with a sporadic emission episode in the end of May 2013. Both CH4 and CO2 fluxes, especially those obtained from vegetated areas, exhibited strong diurnal cycles during summer with synchronized peaks around noon. The annual FwCO(2) was 297.5 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1) and FwCH(4) was 1.73 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The peak diffusive CH4 flux was 137.6 nmol C-CH4 m(-2) s(-1), which was synchronized with the FCH4. Overall, during the monitored time period, the established storm water wetland had a climate-warming effect with 0.263 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1) of which 89% was contributed by CH4. The radiative forcing of the open-water areas exceeded that of the vegetation areas (1.194 and 0.111 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1), respectively), which implies that, when considering solely the climate impact of a created wetland over a 100-year horizon, it would be more beneficial to design and establish wetlands with large patches of emergent vegetation and to limit the areas of open water to the minimum necessitated by other desired ecosystem services.
Subject: 1172 Environmental sciences
1171 Geosciences
EDDY COVARIANCE TECHNIQUE
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
GAS-EXCHANGE
LAKE
ECOSYSTEMS
RESTORATION
UNCERTAINTY
OXIDATION
EMISSION
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