Immunological and Microbiological Profiling of Cumulative Risk Score for Periodontitis

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Liukkonen, J.; Gürsoy, U.K.; Könönen, E.; Akhi, R.; Salminen, A.; Liljestrand, J.M.; Pradhan-Palikhe, P.; Pietiäinen, M.; Sorsa, T.; Persson, G.R.; Mäntylä, P.; Buhlin, K.; Paju, S.; Sinisalo, J.; Hörkkö, S.; Pussinen, P.J. Immunological and Microbiological Profiling of Cumulative Risk Score for Periodontitis. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 560.

Title: Immunological and Microbiological Profiling of Cumulative Risk Score for Periodontitis
Author: Liukkonen, Joonas; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Könönen, Eija; Akhi, Ramin; Salminen, Aino; Liljestrand, John M.; Pradhan-Palikhe, Pratikshya; Pietiäinen, Milla; Sorsa, Timo; Persson, G. Rutger; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Paju, Susanna; Sinisalo, Juha; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Pussinen, Pirkko J.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2020-08-05
Abstract: The cumulative risk score (CRS) is a mathematical salivary diagnostic model to define an individual&rsquo;s risk of having periodontitis. In order to further validate this salivary biomarker, we investigated how periodontal bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and systemic and local host immune responses relate to CRS. Subgingival plaque, saliva, and serum samples collected from 445 individuals were used in the analyses. Plaque levels of 28 microbial species, especially those of <i>Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans</i>, <i>Porphyromonas gingivalis</i>, <i>Porphyromonas endodontalis</i>, <i>Prevotella intermedia</i>, and <i>Tannerella forsythia</i>, and serum and salivary levels of IgA and IgG against these five species were determined. Additionally, LPS activity was measured. High CRS associated strongly with all IgA/IgG antibody and LPS levels in saliva, whereas in serum the associations were not that obvious. In the final logistic regression model, the best predictors of high CRS were saliva IgA burden against the five species (OR 7.04, 95% CI 2.25&ndash;22.0), IgG burden (3.79, 1.78&ndash;8.08), LPS (2.19, 1.38&ndash;3.47), and the sum of 17 subgingival Gram-negative species (6.19, 2.10&ndash;18.3). CRS is strongly associated with microbial biomarker species of periodontitis and salivary humoral immune responses against them.

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