Hypoxia in the Holocene Baltic Sea : Comparing modern versus past intervals using sedimentary trace metals

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van Helmond , N A G M , Jilbert , T & Slomp , C P 2018 , ' Hypoxia in the Holocene Baltic Sea : Comparing modern versus past intervals using sedimentary trace metals ' , Chemical Geology , vol. 493 , pp. 478-490 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.06.028

Title: Hypoxia in the Holocene Baltic Sea : Comparing modern versus past intervals using sedimentary trace metals
Author: van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Jilbert, Tom; Slomp, Caroline P.
Contributor organization: Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme
Marine Ecosystems Research Group
Aquatic Biogeochemistry Research Unit (ABRU)
Doctoral Programme in Interdisciplinary Environmental Sciences
Date: 2018-08-20
Language: eng
Number of pages: 13
Belongs to series: Chemical Geology
ISSN: 0009-2541
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.06.028
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/318417
Abstract: Anthropogenic nutrient input has caused a rapid expansion of bottom water hypoxia in the Baltic Sea over the past century. Two earlier intervals of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTMHI; 8-4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA(HI); similar to 1200-750 years BP), have been identified from Baltic Sea sediments. Here we present sediment records from two sites in the Baltic Sea, and compare the trace metal (As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Re, Sb, Tl, U, V, Zn) enrichments during all three hypoxic intervals. Distinct differences are observed between the intervals and the various elements, highlighting the much stronger perturbation of trace metal cycles during the modern hypoxic interval. Both Mo and U show a strong correlation with C-org and very high absolute concentrations, indicative of frequently euxinic bottom waters during hypoxic intervals. During the modern hypoxic interval (Modern(HI)) comparatively less Mo is sequestered relative to C-org than in earlier intervals. This suggests partial drawdown of the water column Mo inventory in the modern water column due to persistent euxinia and only partial replenishment of Mo through North Sea inflows. Molybdenum contents in modern sediments are likely also affected by the recent slowdown in input of Mo in association with deposition of Fe and Mn oxides. Strong enrichments of U in recent sediments confirm that the Modern(HI) is more intense than past intervals. These results suggest that U is a more reliable indicator for the intensity of bottom water deoxygenation in the Baltic Sea than Mo. Sedimentary Re enrichment commences under mildly reducing conditions, but this element is not further enriched under more reducing conditions. Enrichments of V are relatively minor for the MCA(HI) and Modern(HI), possibly due to strong reservoir effects on V in the water column, indicating that V is unreliable as an indicator for the intensity of bottom water hypoxia in this setting. Furthermore, Ba profiles are strongly influenced by post-depositional remobilization throughout the Holocene. The strong relationship between C-org and Ni, Tl and particularly Cu suggests that these trace metals can be used to reconstruct the C-org flux into the sediments. Profiles of As, Sb and Cd and especially Pb and Zn are strongly influenced by anthropogenic pollution.
Subject: Redox conditions
Anthropogenic pollution
Aqueous trace metal depletion
1171 Geosciences
1172 Environmental sciences
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by_nc_nd
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: acceptedVersion

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