Uncovering the Tumor Antigen Landscape : What to Know about the Discovery Process

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dc.contributor.author Feola, Sara
dc.contributor.author Chiaro, Jacopo
dc.contributor.author Martins, Beatriz
dc.contributor.author Cerullo, Vincenzo
dc.date.accessioned 2020-08-20T09:30:01Z
dc.date.available 2020-08-20T09:30:01Z
dc.date.issued 2020-06
dc.identifier.citation Feola , S , Chiaro , J , Martins , B & Cerullo , V 2020 , ' Uncovering the Tumor Antigen Landscape : What to Know about the Discovery Process ' , Cancers , vol. 12 , no. 6 , 1660 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061660
dc.identifier.other PURE: 142641865
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 9bc9b3d2-a0f9-458f-a689-bd36e0e4e043
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000554937700001
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/318431
dc.description.abstract According to the latest available data, cancer is the second leading cause of death, highlighting the need for novel cancer therapeutic approaches. In this context, immunotherapy is emerging as a reliable first-line treatment for many cancers, particularly metastatic melanoma. Indeed, cancer immunotherapy has attracted great interest following the recent clinical approval of antibodies targeting immune checkpoint molecules, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4, that release the brakes of the immune system, thus reviving a field otherwise poorly explored. Cancer immunotherapy mainly relies on the generation and stimulation of cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME), priming T cells and establishing efficient and durable anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, there is a clear need to define and identify immunogenic T cell epitopes to use in therapeutic cancer vaccines. Naturally presented antigens in the human leucocyte antigen-1 (HLA-I) complex on the tumor surface are the main protagonists in evocating a specific anti-tumor CD8+ T cell response. However, the methodologies for their identification have been a major bottleneck for their reliable characterization. Consequently, the field of antigen discovery has yet to improve. The current review is intended to define what are today known as tumor antigens, with a main focus on CTL antigenic peptides. We also review the techniques developed and employed to date for antigen discovery, exploring both the direct elution of HLA-I peptides and the in silico prediction of epitopes. Finally, the last part of the review analyses the future challenges and direction of the antigen discovery field. en
dc.format.extent 28
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Cancers
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject tumor antigens
dc.subject immunopeptidome
dc.subject cancer immunotherapy
dc.subject epitope prediction
dc.subject MHC CLASS-I
dc.subject CYTOLYTIC T-LYMPHOCYTES
dc.subject MASS-SPECTROMETRIC IDENTIFICATION
dc.subject DISTINCT PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSES
dc.subject TAP TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY
dc.subject CELL EPITOPES
dc.subject PREDICTING IMMUNOGENICITY
dc.subject BINDING PEPTIDES
dc.subject IMMUNE-RESPONSES
dc.subject HIGH-THROUGHPUT
dc.subject 3111 Biomedicine
dc.subject 3122 Cancers
dc.subject 317 Pharmacy
dc.title Uncovering the Tumor Antigen Landscape : What to Know about the Discovery Process en
dc.type Review Article
dc.contributor.organization ImmunoViroTherapy Lab
dc.contributor.organization Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences
dc.contributor.organization Drug Research Program
dc.contributor.organization Helsinki Institute of Life Science HiLIFE
dc.contributor.organization TRIMM - Translational Immunology Research Program
dc.contributor.organization Digital Precision Cancer Medicine (iCAN)
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061660
dc.relation.issn 2072-6694
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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