Tobacco Products, Periodontal Health and Education Level: Cohort Study from Sweden

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/318467

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Julkunen-Iivari, A.; Heikkinen, A.M.; Räisänen, I.T.; Ruokonen, H.; Meurman, J.H.; Toppila-Salmi, S.; Söder, P.-Ö.; Söder, B. Tobacco Products, Periodontal Health and Education Level: Cohort Study from Sweden. Dent. J. 2020, 8, 90.

Title: Tobacco Products, Periodontal Health and Education Level: Cohort Study from Sweden
Author: Julkunen-Iivari, Anna; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Meurman, Jukka H.; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Söder, Per-Östen; Söder, Birgitta
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2020-08-10
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/318467
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study is to investigate if using tobacco products (including snuff, smoking tobacco and dual-using) associates with periodontal health, education level and mortality in a Swedish cohort, hypothesizing that tobacco products affect periodontal health, associate with lower education and increase the risk of death. Method: Study cohort of 1080 subjects aged 31&ndash;40 years (528 men, 552 women) was clinically examined and interviewed in 1985 and followed for mortality until 2015. Subjects were classified into two groups: &ldquo;tobacco users&rdquo; and &ldquo;non-users&rdquo;. Associations between periodontal health parameters, tobacco products, education level and age of death were analysed. SPSS was used for analyses. Results: Tobacco products, as well as education level associated, with poor periodontal health. Tobacco users and lower education was linked to higher plaque-, calculus- and gingival-index scores than non-users (<i>p &lt;</i> 0.001). They also had significantly higher prevalence of deep periodontal pockets (&ge;5 mm) (<i>p &lt;</i> 0.001 and 0.010, respectively), missing teeth (<i>p =</i> 0.010 and 0.003, respectively) and lower education level (<i>p</i> &lt; 0.001) compared with non-users. However, tobacco product users did not die significantly earlier than non-users. Conclusion: Tobacco products had a negative impact on periodontal health. Tobacco product users were less educated. However, using tobacco products may not cause premature death.


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