Siveellisemmän Suomen puolesta : Tilma Hainari uskonnollisena moraalireformistina ja rotuhygienian edistäjänä 1904-1934

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-6492-6
Title: Siveellisemmän Suomen puolesta : Tilma Hainari uskonnollisena moraalireformistina ja rotuhygienian edistäjänä 1904-1934
Author: Jämbäck, Eija
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology
Doctoral Programme in Theology and Religous Studies
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2020-09-19
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-6492-6
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/318742
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (monograph)
Abstract: The dissertation studies the Association Activist Tilma Hainari (1861–1940) and her attitude towards moral reform and eugenics in the Finnish context. Her thinking about moral reform and eugenics and her activities in these fields are, furthermore, reflected in terms of her strongly held Christianity. Her attitude towards moral reform aimed primarily at building society upon a morally virtuous, Christian base. The core idea behind her attitude towards eugenics was to improve the quality of future generations. Positive eugenics was therefore thought to be a supportive measure for those whose genetic heritage was considered of high quality. In negative eugenics, reproductive isolation, marriage prohibition, sterilization, and castration were used to prevent the reproduction of individuals classified as biologically unfit. Reproduction regulation was, moreover, at the heart of eugenics. Broadly speaking, this dissertation studies why Hainari aligned herself with moral reform and eugenics and how her thinking and activities reflected these ideologies. In addition, the quality of her religiousness and its manifestations are studied. The research also focuses on the relationship between religiosity and eugenics, where religion lay at the heart of Hainari’s life and activities. Her religiousness was multidimensional and her concept of God had two elements. On the one hand, God was seen as a judge who punished sins. Hainari used the term ‘sin’, however, solely for sexual offenses. On the other hand, God was a good father who protected and guided all things. The religious justification for moral reform for Hainari was the notion that only a person purified by religion met the high standards of chastity. Moral reformist and eugenist Tilma Hainari considered her actions as purifying Finland in three ways. First, at the state level, she strove to change the laws on moral issues. Secondly, she dictated moral rules to renew social morality. Third, Hainari was active in the fight against indecency. The effects of the environment, the ideas and challenges of the time, and internal development combined in making Hainari a social influencer. As the chairwoman of the Committee on Chastity in the Finnish National League for Women, she became a guardian of morals in the country and the spokesperson and main figure in chastity work. Hainari held senior positions in society, disseminated doctrines, outlined work, and directed the discussions on the issues of morality and eugenics. Under her leadership, the Committee on Chastity addressed and commented on issues such as prostitution, sex crimes, marriage law, the treatment of the feeble minded, as well as the care of ill-mannered children. As a social influencer and opinion leader, Hainari had the rare opportunity as a woman of her time to gain widespread visibility for her message. Tilma Hainari’s moral reform activities intertwined eugenic ideas with traditional Christian-centred charity thinking. The transition from the control of chastity to that of eugenics was, for Hainari, a complementary issue, in the sense that eugenics was one way to realise the goals of chastity. In particular, Hainari supported and promoted the activities of negative eugenics, including the isolation, sterilization and marriage bans of the feeble minded, and for individuals having certain illnesses, and the castration of pathological sex offenders. Hainari also supported, to some extent, positive eugenics, in promoting support for families and improving their living conditions. In the eyes of the state, Hainari held a prestigious position as a qualified authority in the field of eugenics. In the new Marriage Law, she publicly emphasized the eugenics dimension of the law and her actions affected the implementation of the Sterilization Act. The Finnish government sent Hainari to the United States as a representative to study how the country took care of their feeble minded. Hainari was elected as the only female member of the Prohibition Law Committee. In this case, the hard measures that she often favoured, had not worked, and Hainari had to give up supporting the Prohibition Act. Hainari’s ethical justification for negative eugenics was above all the moral obligation of the society to protect its citizens from degeneration. She considered eugenic measures to have a healing effect on their target population and prevented their offspring from suffering. Hainari saw the actions of eugenics as a part of the efforts of do-gooders and thought that her actions had pure motives, good intentions and served an altruistic purpose. For Hainari, children were the vital core of the nation and the apple of its eye. The relationship between mother and child was sacred. The mother also occupied a societal dimension to care for the weakest members of the nation. It was also possible to fit eugenic maternity into the models of maternity that Hainari favoured. A mother gave birth and raised anew, brave generation. When choosing the groom, the future mother had the responsibility to ensure the good hereditary qualities for her future children and, as the caregiver and educator, she was in charge of the child’s living environment. In sum, religion and eugenics went hand in hand in Hainari’s view of life, sometimes overlapping, most often simultaneously in their own corners of her mind. Their coexistence was neither problematic for her nor for most other Christians in the Finland of her time. The common goal of Hainari’s religiously motivated work on moral reform and her efforts at implementing eugenics was the nation’s morality, which aimed at promoting the best of both the fatherland and the nation. Nationality was thus at the heart of these moral issues. In the field of Finnish eugenics, Hainari was one of the few active, respected key players among women. Not only did she promote the idea of eugenics, she also excelled as an executive. Her overall importance to the Finnish eugenics’ movement was therefore quite remarkable.Väitöskirjassa tarkastellaan suomalaisen järjestövaikuttaja Tilma Hainarin (1861−1940) moraalireformi- ja rotuhygienia-ajattelua ja toimintaa, niiden vaikutteita, kehittymistä ja ilmenemismuotoja sekä niiden suhdetta hänen uskonnolliseen vakaumukseensa. Moraalireformilla pyrittiin nostamaan yhteiskunnan moraali kristillis-siveelliselle pohjalle. Rotuhygienian ydinajatus oli parantaa tulevien sukupolvien laatua, jota pidettiin perinnöllisyyden määräämänä. Positiivinen rotuhygienia merkitsi tukitoimia niille, joiden geenejä pidettiin riittävän laadukkaina. Negatiivisessa rotuhygieniassa taas kelvottomana pidettyjen lisääntyminen pyrittiin estämään eristämisellä, avioliittokielloilla, steriloinnilla tai kastroinnilla. Uskonnollisuus oli Tilma Hainarin elämän ja toiminnan ydintä. Hänen Jumalansa oli toisaalta ankara tuomari, toisaalta hyvä isä ja suojelija. Hainarin mukaan ainoastaan uskonnon puhdistama ihminen täytti moraalireformityön korkeat eettiset vaatimukset, Maan laajuisen naisten kattojärjestön siveellisyyskomitean puheenjohtajana Tilma Hainarista tuli maan moraalinvartija, siveellisyystyön äänitorvi ja keulakuva. Hänen johdollaan siveellisyyskomitea käsitteli ja otti kantaa kysymyksiin prostituutiosta, seksuaalirikoksista, avioliittolainsäädännöstä, älyllisesti kehitysvammaisten hoidosta ja pahantapaisina pidettyjen lasten huollosta. Hainari katsoi puhdistavansa Suomea siveellisemmäksi, kun hän vartioi yhteiskunnan moraalia, vastusti epäsiveellisyyttä ja pyrki muuttamaan moraalikysymyksiin liittyviä lakeja. Yhteiskunnallisena vaikuttajana ja naisten mielipidejohtajana Hainarilla sai sanomalleen näkyvyyttä, ja myös valtiovallan tasolla häntä pidettiin asiantuntijana moraalireformissa ja rotuhygieniassa. Hainarin moraalireformitoiminnassa kristillistä lähimmäisenrakkautta korostavaan ajatteluun nivoutui rotuhygieenisiä käsityksiä. Moraalin kontrolloinnista oli lyhyt siirtymä rotuhygieeniseen kontrolliin. Rotuhygieniasta tuli hänelle yksi keino toteuttaa moraalireformin päämääriä. Hän edisti erityisesti negatiivisen rotuhygienian kontrollitoimenpiteitä, mutta puhui jonkin verran myös positiivisen rotuhygienian puolesta. Hainari perusteli rotuhygieniaa eettisesti, koska hänen mukaansa yhteiskunnalla oli moraalinen velvollisuus suojella kansalaisia rappeutumiselta, jota hän katsoi eri tavoin poikkeavien aiheuttavan. Hän näki rotuhygieeniset toimenpiteet maailmanparannuspyrkimyksinä ja katsoi toimivansa hyvässä tarkoituksessa ja pyyteettömästi. Hainarin moraalireformi- ja rotuhygieniatyöllä oli yhteinen päämäärä, kansakunnan korkea moraali, jonka hän katsoi edistävän isänmaan ja kansan parasta. Suomalaisen rotuhygienian kentässä Hainari oli yksi harvoista aktiivisista rotuhygienian avaintoimijoista naisten keskuudessa. Hänen kokonaismerkityksensä suomalaiselle rotuhygienialle oli varsin huomattava.
Subject: kirkkohistoria
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