Local ocular renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : any connection with intraocular pressure? A comprehensive review

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Holappa , M , Vapaatalo , H & Vaajanen , A 2020 , ' Local ocular renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : any connection with intraocular pressure? A comprehensive review ' , Annals of Medicine , vol. 52 , no. 5 , pp. 191-206 . https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2020.1758341

Title: Local ocular renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : any connection with intraocular pressure? A comprehensive review
Author: Holappa, Mervi; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Vaajanen, Anu
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Pharmacology
University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, Department of Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology
Date: 2020-07-03
Language: eng
Number of pages: 16
Belongs to series: Annals of Medicine
ISSN: 0785-3890
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/318875
Abstract: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the oldest and most extensively studied human peptide cascades, well-known for its role in regulating blood pressure. When aldosterone is included, RAAS is involved also in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. There are two main axes of RAAS: (1) Angiotensin (1-7), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and Mas receptor (ACE2-Ang(1-7)-MasR), (2) Angiotensin II, angiotensin converting enzyme 1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ACE1-AngII-AT1R). In its entirety, RAAS comprises dozens of angiotensin peptides, peptidases and seven receptors. The first mentioned axis is known to counterbalance the deleterious effects of the latter axis. In addition to the systemic RAAS, tissue-specific regulatory systems have been described in various organs, evidence that RAAS is both an endocrine and an autocrine system. These local regulatory systems, such as the one present in the vascular endothelium, are responsible for long-term regional changes. A local RAAS and its components have been detected in many structures of the human eye. This review focuses on the local ocular RAAS in the anterior part of the eye, its possible role in aqueous humour dynamics and intraocular pressure as well as RAAS as a potential target for anti-glaucomatous drugs.KEY MESSAGES Components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been detected in different structures of the human eye, introducing the concept of a local intraocular renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Evidence is accumulating that the local ocular RAAS is involved in aqueous humour dynamics, regulation of intraocular pressure, neuroprotection and ocular pathology making components of RAAS attractive candidates when developing new effective ways to treat glaucoma.
Subject: ACE1
ACE2
angiotensin II
angiotensin (1-7)
angiotensin receptors
Mas receptor
aldosterone
mineralocorticoid receptor
glaucoma
intraocular pressure
CONVERTING-ENZYME-INHIBITOR
ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED UVEITIS
AQUEOUS-HUMOR OUTFLOW
OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA
TYPE-1 RECEPTOR BLOCKER
II SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION
UVEOSCLERAL OUTFLOW
11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE
CHRONIC MODELS
AT1 RECEPTOR
3125 Otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology
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