Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol

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Taddei , C , Zhou , B , Bixby , H , Carrillo-Larco , R M , Danaei , G , Jackson , R T , Farzadfar , F , Sophiea , M K , Di Cesare , M , Iurilli , M L C , Martinez , A R , Asghari , G , Dhana , K , Gulayin , P , Kakarmath , S , Santero , M , Voortman , T , Riley , L M , Cowan , M J , Savin , S , Bennett , J E , Stevens , G A , Paciorek , C J , Aekplakorn , W , Cifkova , R , Giampaoli , S , Kengne , A P , Khang , Y-H , Kuulasmaa , K , Laxmaiah , A , Margozzini , P , Mathur , P , Nordestgaard , B G , Zhao , D , Aadahl , M , Abarca-Gomez , L , Rahim , H A , Abu-Rmeileh , N M , Acosta-Cazares , B , Adams , R J , Agdeppa , I A , Aghazadeh-Attari , J , Aguilar-Salinas , C A , Agyemang , C , Ahluwalia , T S , Ahmad , N A , Ahmadi , A , Ahmadi , N , Ahmed , S H , Ahrens , W , Ajlouni , K , Alarouj , M , AlBuhairan , F , AlDhukair , S , Ali , M M , Alkandari , A , Alkerwi , A , Aly , E , Amarapurkar , D N , Amouyel , P , Andersen , L B , Anderssen , S A , Anjana , R M , Ansari-Moghaddam , A , Aounallah-Skhiri , H , Araujo , J , Ariansen , I , Aris , T , Arku , R E , Arlappa , N , Aryal , K K , Aspelund , T , Assuncao , M C F , Auvinen , J , Avdicova , M , Azevedo , A , Azizi , F , Azmin , M , Balakrishna , N , Bamoshmoosh , M , Banach , M , Bandosz , P , Banegas , J R , Barbagallo , C M , Barcelo , A , Barkat , A , Bata , I , Batieha , A M , Batyrbek , A , Baur , L A , Beaglehole , R , Belavendra , A , Ben Romdhane , H , Benet , M , Benn , M , Berkinbayev , S , Bernabe-Ortiz , A , Bernotiene , G , Bettiol , H , Bhargava , S K , Bi , Y , Bienek , A , Bikbov , M , Bista , B , Bjerregaard , P , Bjertness , E , Bjertness , M B , Bjorkelund , C , Bloch , K , Blokstra , A , Bo , S , Boehm , B O , Boggia , J G , Boissonnet , C P , Bonaccio , M , Bongard , V , Borchini , R , Borghs , H , Bovet , P , Brajkovich , I , Breckenkamp , J , Brenner , H , Brewster , L M , Bruno , G , Bugge , A , Busch , M A , de Leon , A C , Cacciottolo , J , Can , G , Candido , A P C , Capanzana , M , 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, Dzerve , V , Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk , E , Eddie , R , Eftekhar , E , Eggertsen , R , Eghtesad , S , Eiben , G , Ekelund , U , El Ati , J , Eldemire-Shearer , D , Eliasen , M , Elosua , R , Erasmus , R T , Erbel , R , Erem , C , Eriksen , L , Eriksson , J G , Escobedo-de la Pena , J , Eslami , S , Esmaeili , A , Evans , A , Faeh , D , Fall , C H , Faramarzi , E , Farjam , M , Fattahi , M R , Felix-Redondo , F J , Ferguson , T S , Fernandez-Berges , D , Ferrante , D , Ferrari , M , Ferreccio , C , Ferrieres , J , Foger , B , Foo , L H , Forslund , A-S , Forsner , M , Fouad , H M , Francis , D K , Franco , M D C , Franco , O H , Frontera , G , Fujita , Y , Fumihiko , M , Furusawa , T , Gaciong , Z , Galvano , F , Gao , J , Garcia-de-la-Hera , M , Garnett , S P , Gaspoz , J-M , Gasull , M , Gazzinelli , A , Geleijnse , J M , Ghanbari , A , Ghasemi , E , Gheorghe-Fronea , O-F , Ghimire , A , Gianfagna , F , Gill , T K , Giovannelli , J , Gironella , G , Giwercman , A , Goltzman , D , Goncalves , H , Gonzalez-Chica , D A , Gonzalez-Gross , M , Gonzalez-Rivas , J P , Gonzalez-Villalpando , C , Gonzalez-Villalpando , M-E , Gonzalez , A R , Gottrand , F , Graff-Iversen , S , Gregor , R D , Grodzicki , T , Grontved , A , Grosso , G , Gruden , G , Gu , D , Guallar-Castillon , P , Guan , O P , Gudmundsson , E F , Gudnason , V , Guerrero , R , Guessous , I , Gunnlaugsdottir , J , Gupta , R , Gutierrez , L , Gutzwiller , F , Ha , S , Hadaegh , F , Haghshenas , R , Hakimi , H , Hambleton , I R , Hamzeh , B , Hantunen , S , Kumar , R H , Hashemi-Shahri , S M , Hata , J , Haugsgjerd , T , Hayes , A J , He , J , He , Y , Hendriks , M E , Henriques , A , Herrala , S , Heshmat , R , Hill , A G , Ho , S Y , Ho , S C , Hobbs , M , Hofman , A , Homayounfar , R , Hopman , W M , Horimoto , A R V R , Hormiga , C M , Horta , B L , Houti , L , Howitt , C , Htay , T T , Htet , A S , Htike , M M T , Huerta , J M , Huhtaniemi , I T , Huisman , M , Hunsberger , M L , Husseini , A S , Huybrechts , I , Hwalla , N , Iacoviello , L , Iannone , A G , Ibrahim , M M , Wong , N I , Iglesia , I , Ikeda , N , Ikram , M A , Iotova , V , Irazola , V E , Ishida , T , Islam , M , Ismail , A A-S , Iwasaki , M , Jacobs , J M , Jaddou , H Y , Jafar , T , James , K , Jamrozik , K , Janszky , I , Janus , E , Jarvelin , M-R , Jasienska , G , Jelakovic , A , Jelakovic , B , Jennings , G , Jensen , G B , Jeong , S , Jha , A K , Jiang , C Q , Jimenez , R O , Jockel , K-H , Joffres , M , Jokelainen , J J , Jonas , J B , Jorgensen , T , Joshi , P , Joukar , F , Jozwiak , J , Juolevi , A , Kafatos , A , Kajantie , E O , Kalter-Leibovici , O , Kamaruddin , N A , Kamstrup , P R , Karki , K B , Katz , J , Kauhanen , J , Kaur , P , Kavousi , M , Kazakbaeva , G , Keil , U , Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi , S , Kelishadi , R , Keramati , M , Kerimkulova , A , Kersting , M , Khader , Y S , Khalili , D , Khateeb , M , Kheradmand , M , Khosravi , A , Kiechl-Kohlendorfer , U , Kiechl , S , Killewo , J , Kim , 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Slowikowska-Hilczer , J , Slusarczyk , P , Smeeth , L , Snijder , M B , Soderberg , S , Soemantri , A , Sofat , R , Solfrizzi , V , Somi , M H , Sonestedt , E , Sorensen , T I A , Jerome , C S , Soumare , A , Sozmen , K , Sparrenberger , K , Staessen , J A , Stathopoulou , M G , Stavreski , B , Steene-Johannessen , J , Stehle , P , Stein , A D , Stessman , J , Stevanovic , R , Stieber , J , Stockl , D , Stokwiszewski , J , Stronks , K , Strufaldi , M W , Suarez-Medina , R , Sun , C-A , Sundstrom , J , Suriyawongpaisal , P , Sy , R G , Sylva , R C , Szklo , M , Tai , E S , Tamosiunas , A , Tan , E , Tarawneh , M R , Tarqui-Mamani , C B , Taylor , A , Taylor , J , Tell , G S , Tello , T , Thankappan , K R , Thijs , L , Thuesen , B H , Toft , U , Tolonen , H K , Tolstrup , J S , Topbas , M , Topor-Madry , R , Tormo , M J , Tornaritis , M J , Torrent , M , Torres-Collado , L , Traissac , P , Trinh , O T H , Truthmann , J , Tsugane , S , Tulloch-Reid , M K , Tuomainen , T-P , Tuomilehto , J , Tybjaerg-Hansen , A , Tzourio , C , Ueda , P , Ugel , E , Ulmer , H , Unal , B , Uusitalo , H M T , Valdivia , G , Valvi , D , van Dam , R , van der Schouw , Y T , Van Herck , K , Hoang Van Minh , Rossem , L , Van Schoor , N M , van Valkengoed , I G M , Vanderschueren , D , Vanuzzo , D , Varbo , A , Varona-Perez , P , Vasan , S K , Vatten , L , Vega , T , Veidebaum , T , Velasquez-Melendez , G , Venero-Fernandez , S J , Veronesi , G , MoniqueVerschuren , W M , Victora , C G , Vidiawati , D , Viet , L , Villalpando , S , Vioque , J , Virtanen , J K , Visvikis-Siest , S , Viswanathan , B , Vlasoff , T , Vollenweider , P , Voutilainen , A , Wade , A N , Wagner , A , Walton , J , Bebakar , W M W , WanMohamud , W N , Wang , M-D , Wang , N , Wang , Q , Wang , Y X , Wang , Y-W , Wannamethee , S G , Wedderkopp , N , Wei , W , Whincup , P H , Widhalm , K , Widyahening , I S , Wiecek , A , Wijga , A H , Wilks , R J , Willeit , J , Willeit , P , Wilsgaard , T , Wojtyniak , B , Wong-McClure , R 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Title: Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
Author: Taddei, Cristina; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Danaei, Goodarz; Jackson, Rod T.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sophiea, Marisa K.; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez; Asghari, Golaleh; Dhana, Klodian; Gulayin, Pablo; Kakarmath, Sujay; Santero, Marilina; Voortman, Trudy; Riley, Leanne M.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Savin, Stefan; Bennett, James E.; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Cifkova, Renata; Giampaoli, Simona; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khang, Young-Ho; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laxmaiah, Avula; Margozzini, Paula; Mathur, Prashant; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Zhao, Dong; Aadahl, Mette; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert J.; Agdeppa, Imelda A.; Aghazadeh-Attari, Javad; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Ahmadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Naser; Ahmed, Soheir H.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Alarouj, Monira; AlBuhairan, Fadia; AlDhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkandari, Abdullah; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araujo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arku, Raphael E.; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Auvinen, Juha; Avdicova, Maria; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Azmin, Mehrdad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, Jose R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Belavendra, Antonisamy; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Benet, Mikhail; Benn, Marianne; Berkinbayev, Salim; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bienek, Asako; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Bloch, Katia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Borchini, Rossana; Borghs, Herman; Bovet, Pascal; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; Busch, Markus A.; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Eduardo; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carvalho, Joana; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Censi, Laura; Chadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nish; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheraghian, Bahman; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Claessens, Frank; Clarke, Janine; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Csilla, Semanova; Cui, Liufu; Cureau, Felipe; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; de Gaetano, Giovanni; De Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; De Ridder, David; De Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Helene; Dennison, Elaine; Deschamps, Valerie; Dhimal, Meghnath; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Doring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragano, Nico; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Duante, Charmaine A.; Duda, Rosemary B.; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eddie, Ricky; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Eggertsen, Robert; Eghtesad, Sareh; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Eliasen, Marie; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erbel, Raimund; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Eslami, Saeid; Esmaeili, Ali; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Farjam, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fujita, Yuki; Fumihiko, Matsuda; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galvano, Fabio; Gao, Jingli; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghasemi, Erfan; Gheorghe-Fronea, Oana-Florentina; Ghimire, Anup; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gironella, Glen; Giwercman, Aleksander; Goltzman, David; Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez-Chica, David A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Maria-Elena; Gonzalez, Angel R.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Ha, Seongjun; Hadaegh, Farzad; Haghshenas, Rosa; Hakimi, Hamid; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Hantunen, Sari; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Hata, Jun; Haugsgjerd, Teresa; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; He, Yuna; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hill, Allan G.; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Homayounfar, Reza; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. 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Contributor: University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Date: 2020-06-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 22
Belongs to series: Nature
ISSN: 0028-0836
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/319552
Abstract: High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries(1,2). However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world(3) and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health(4,5). However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular riskchanged from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
Subject: DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS
SERUM-CHOLESTEROL
ATHEROSCLEROSIS SOCIETY
20-YEAR TRENDS
BLOOD-PRESSURE
MEDICATION USE
HEART-DISEASE
LIPIDS
POPULATION
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
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