Sources and sinks driving sulfuric acid concentrations in contrasting environments : implications on proxy calculations

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Dada , L , Ylivinkka , I , Baalbaki , R , Li , C , Guo , Y , Yan , C , Yao , L , Sarnela , N , Jokinen , T , Dällenbach , K , Yin , R , Deng , C , Chu , B , Nieminen , T , Wang , Y , Lin , Z , Thakur , R C , Kontkanen , J , Stolzenburg , D , Sipila , M , Hussein , T , Paasonen , P , Bianchi , F , Salma , I , Weidinger , T , Pikridas , M , Sciare , J , Jiang , J , Liu , Y , Petaja , T , Kerminen , V-M & Kulmala , M 2020 , ' Sources and sinks driving sulfuric acid concentrations in contrasting environments : implications on proxy calculations ' , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , vol. 20 , no. 20 , pp. 11747-11766 .

Title: Sources and sinks driving sulfuric acid concentrations in contrasting environments : implications on proxy calculations
Author: Dada, Lubna; Ylivinkka, Ilona; Baalbaki, Rima; Li, Chang; Guo, Yishuo; Yan, Chao; Yao, Lei; Sarnela, Nina; Jokinen, Tuija; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Yin, Rujing; Deng, Chenjuan; Chu, Biwu; Nieminen, Tuomo; Wang, Yonghong; Lin, Zhuohui; Thakur, Roseline C.; Kontkanen, Jenni; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Sipila, Mikko; Hussein, Tareq; Paasonen, Pauli; Bianchi, Federico; Salma, Imre; Weidinger, Tamas; Pikridas, Michael; Sciare, Jean; Jiang, Jingkun; Liu, Yongchun; Petaja, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku
Contributor organization: Air quality research group
INAR Physics
Global Atmosphere-Earth surface feedbacks
Polar and arctic atmospheric research (PANDA)
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)
Date: 2020-10-19
Language: eng
Number of pages: 20
Belongs to series: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
ISSN: 1680-7316
Abstract: Sulfuric acid has been shown to be a key driver for new particle formation and subsequent growth in various environments, mainly due to its low volatility. However, direct measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid are oftentimes not available, and the current sulfuric acid proxies cannot predict, for example, its nighttime concentrations or result in significant discrepancies with measured values. Here, we define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in different environments and derive a new physical proxy for sulfuric acid to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured. We used H2SO4 measurements from four different locations: Hyytiala, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment and heavily polluted megacity, respectively. The new proxy takes into account the formation of sulfuric acid from SO2 via OH oxidation and other oxidation pathways, specifically via stabilized Criegee intermediates. The sulfuric acid sinks included in the proxy are its condensation sink (CS) and atmospheric clustering starting from H2SO4 dimer formation. Indeed, we found that the observed sulfuric acid concentration can be explained by the proposed sources and sinks with similar coefficients in the four contrasting environments where we have tested it. Thus, the new proxy is a more flexible and an important improvement over previous proxies. Following the recommendations in this paper, a proxy for a specific location can be derived.
116 Chemical sciences
114 Physical sciences
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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