Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17

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Deshpande , A , Miller-Petrie , M K , Lindstedt , P A , Baumann , M M , Johnson , K B , Blacker , B F , Abbastabar , H , Abd-Allah , F , Abdelalim , A , Abdollahpour , I , Abegaz , K H , Abejie , A N , Abreu , L G , Abrigo , M R M , Abualhasan , A , Accrombessi , M M K , Adamu , A A , Adebayo , O M , Adedeji , I A , Adedoyin , R A , Adekanmbi , V , Adetokunboh , O O , Adhikari , T B , Afarideh , M , Agudelo-Botero , M , Ahmadi , M , Ahmadi , K , Ahmed , M B , Ahmed , A E , Akalu , T Y , Akanda , A S , Alahdab , F , Al-Aly , Z , Alam , S , Alam , N , Alamene , G M , Alanzi , T M , Albright , J , Albujeer , A , Alcalde-Rabanal , J E , Alebel , A , Alemu , Z A , Ali , M , Alijanzadeh , M , Alipour , V , Aljunid , S M , Almasi , A , Almasi-Hashiani , A , Al-Mekhlafi , H M , Altirkawi , K A , Alvis-Guzman , N , Alvis-Zakzuk , N J , Amini , S , Amit , A M L , Amul , G G H , Andrei , C L , Anjomshoa , M , Ansariadi , A , Antonio , C A T , Antony , B , Antriyandarti , E , Arabloo , J , Aref , 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, Tehrani-Banihashemi , A , Tekelemedhin , S W , Tekle , M G , Temsah , M-H , Tesfay , B E , Tesfay , F H , Tessema , Z T , Thankappan , K R , ThekkePurakkal , A S , Thomas , N , Thompson , R L , Thomson , A J , Topor-Madry , R , Tovani-Palone , M R , Traini , E , Bach Xuan Tran , Khanh Bao Tran , Ullah , I , Unnikrishnan , B , Usman , M S , Uthman , O A , Uzochukwu , B S C , Valdez , P R , Varughese , S , Veisani , Y , Violante , F S , Vollmer , S , Whawariat , F G , Waheed , Y , Wallin , M T , Wang , Y-P , Wang , Y , Wangdi , K , Weiss , D J , Weldesamuel , G T , Werkneh , A A , Westerman , R , Wiangkham , T , Wiens , K E , Wijeratne , T , Wiysonge , C S , Wolde , H F , Wondafrash , D Z , Wonde , T E , Worku , G T , Yadollahpour , A , Jabbari , S H Y , Yamada , T , Yaseri , M , Yatsuya , H , Yeshaneh , A , Yilma , M T , Yip , P , Yisma , E , Yonemoto , N , Younis , M Z , Yousof , H-A S A , Yu , C , Yusefzadeh , H , Zadey , S , Moghadam , T Z , Zaidi , Z , Bin Zaman , S , Zamani , M , Zandian , H , Zar , H J , Zerfu , T A , Zhang , Y , Ziapour , A , Zodpey , S , Zuniga , Y M H , Hay , S & Reiner , R C 2020 , ' Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17 ' , Lancet global health , vol. 8 , no. 9 , pp. E1162-E1185 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30278-3

Title: Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17
Author: Deshpande, Aniruddha; Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Lindstedt, Paulina A.; Baumann, Mathew M.; Johnson, Kimberly B.; Blacker, Brigette F.; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abegaz, Kedir Hussein; Abejie, Ayenew Negesse; Abreu, Lucas Guimaraes; Abrigo, Michael R. M.; Abualhasan, Ahmed; Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou; Adamu, Abdu A.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Keivan; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Ahmed, Anwar E.; Akalu, Temesgen Yihunie; Akanda, Ali S.; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Samiah; Alam, Noore; Alamene, Genet Melak; Alanzi, Turki M.; Albright, James; Albujeer, Ammar; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Alebel, Animut; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Ali, Muhammad; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almasi, Ali; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Alvis-Zakzuk, Nelson J.; Amini, Saeed; Amit, Arianna Maever L.; Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansariadi, Ansariadi; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Antony, Benny; Antriyandarti, Ernoiz; Arabloo, Jalal; Aref, Hany Mohamed Amin; Aremu, Olatunde; Armoon, Bahram; Arora, Amit; Aryal, Krishna K.; Arzani, Afsaneh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran; Asmelash, Daniel; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Athari, Seyyede Masoume; Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin; Atre, Sachin R.; Ausloos, Marcel; Awasthi, Shally; Awoke, Nefsu; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayano, Getinet; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Aynalem, Yared Asmare; Azari, Samad; Azman, Andrew S.; Babaee, Ebrahim; Badawi, Alaa; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Bakkannavar, Shankar M.; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar; Banach, Maciej; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barac, Aleksandra; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Basu, Sanjay; Vo Dinh Bay,; Bayati, Mohsen; Bedi, Neeraj; Beheshti, Mahya; Behzadifar, Meysam; Behzadifar, Masoud; Ramirez, Diana Fernanda Bejarano; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Benzian, Habib; Berbada, Dessalegn Ajema; Bernstein, Robert S.; Bhat, Anusha Ganapati; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Bohlouli, Somayeh; Boufous, Soufiane; Brady, Oliver J.; Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Brown, Alexandria; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Butt, Zahid A.; Camera, Luis Alberto; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Cano, Jorge; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Franz; Cerin, Ester; Chalise, Binaya; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Chin, Ken Lee; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Cormier, Natalie Maria; Costa, Vera Marisa; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Dadi, Abel Fekadu Fekadu; Dahiru, Tukur; Dahlawi, Saad M. A.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Dang, Anh Kim; Daoud, Farah; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Darwish, Amira Hamed; Daryani, Ahmad; Das, Jai K.; Das Gupta, Rajat; Dash, Aditya Prasad; Davila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto; Weaver, Nicole Davis; De la Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Demissie, Dereje Bayissa; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Denova-Gutierrez, Edgar; Deribe, Kebede; Desalew, Assefa; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Dhillon, Preeti; Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhungana, Govinda Prasad; Diaz, Daniel; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi; Hoa Thi,; Dolecek, Christiane; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duraes, Andre Rodrigues; Edinur, Hisham Atan; Effiong, Andem; Eftekhari, Aziz; El Nahas, Nevine; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; El Tantawi, Maha; Elhabashy, Hala Rashad; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Elkout, Hajer; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Enany, Shymaa; Endalew, Daniel Adane; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Etemadi, Arash; Ezekannagha, Oluchi; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Fareed, Mohammad; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fasil, Alebachew Fasil; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Feigin, Valery L.; Fekadu, Wubalem; Fentahun, Netsanet; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Flohr, Carsten; Foigt, Nataliya A.; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Foroutan, Masoud; Franklin, Richard Charles; Frostad, Joseph Jon; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gad, Mohamed M.; Garcia, Gregory M.; Gatotoh, Augustine Mwangi; Gayesa, Reta Tsegaye; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork; Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghashghaee, Ahmad; Sherbaf, Farzaneh Ghazi; Gill, Tiffany K.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Ginindza, Themba G.; Girmay, Alem; Gizaw, Zemichael; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goulart, Barbara Niegia Garcia; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Green, Manfred S.; Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guido, Davide; Guimaraes, Rafael Alves; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Ha, Giang Hai; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Dessalegn H.; Haile, Michael Tamene; Hall, Brian J.; Hamidi, Samer; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes; Haririan, Hamidreza; Hariyani, Ninuk; Hasaballah, Ahmed; Hasan, Mehedi; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hayelom, Desta Haftu; Hegazy, Mohamed; Heibati, Behzad; Heidari, Behnam; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Herteliu, Claudiu; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; de Hidru, Hagos Degefa; Hird, Thomas R.; Chi Linh Hoang,; Hollerich, Gillian; Hoogar, Praveen; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Househ, Mowafa; Hu, Guoqing; Humayun, Ayesha; Hussain, Syed Ather; Hussen, Mamusha Aman A.; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Ilic, Milena D.; Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jalali, Amir; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jha, Vivekanand; Ji, John S.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Kabir, Ali; Kabir, Zubair; Kanchan, Tanuj; Karch, Andre; Karki, Surendra; Kasaeian, Amir; Kasahun, Gebremicheal Gebreslassie; Kasaye, Habtamu Kebebe; Kassa, Gebrehiwot G.; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kayode, Gbenga A.; Kebede, Mihiretu M.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Ketema, Daniel Bekele; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Junaid; Khan, Nuruzzaman; Khatab, Khaled; Khater, Mona M.; Khater, Amir M.; Khayamzadeh, Maryam; Khazaei, Mohammad; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Ali; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kisa, Sezer; Kisa, Adnan; Kochhar, Sonali; Kolola, Tufa; Komaki, Hamidreza; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krishan, Kewal; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kusuma, Dian; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lacey, Ben; Lal, Aparna; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van Charles; Lasrado, Savita; Lebedev, Georgy; Lee, Paul H.; LeGrand, Kate E.; Leili, Mostafa; Lenjebo, Tsegaye Lolaso; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Levine, Aubrey J.; Lewycka, Sonia; Li, Shanshan; Linn, Shai; Liu, Shiwei; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.; Lopukhov, Platon D.; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Prasad, D. R. Mahadeshwara; Mahasha, Phetole Walter; Mahotra, Narayan B.; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manafi, Navid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mapoma, Chabila Christopher; Martinez, Gabriel; Martini, Santi; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; Meharie, Birhanu Geta; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Nasab, Entezar Mehrabi; Mehta, Kala M.; Mekonnen, Teferi; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Meles, Gebrekiros Gebremichael; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Metekiya, Workua Mekonnen; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohammad, Yousef; Mohammad, Dara K.; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Jemal Abdu; Mohammed, Hassen; Mohebi, Farnam; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moodley, Yoshan; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moraga, Paula; Morales, Linda; Mosapour, Abbas; Mosser, Jonathan F.; Mouodi, Simin; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Mozaffor, Miliva; Munro, Sandra B.; Muriithi, Moses K.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naik, Gurudatta; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Nazari, Javad; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Netsere, Henok Biresaw; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen,; Nguyen, QuynhAnh P.; Nigatu, Solomon Gedlu; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Nojomi, Marzieh; Norheim, Ole F.; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Oancea, Bogdan; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris; Osarenotor, Osayomwanbo; Osei, Frank B.; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Mahesh, P. 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Contributor: University of Helsinki, HUS Comprehensive Cancer Center
University of Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Date: 2020-09
Language: eng
Number of pages: 24
Belongs to series: Lancet global health
ISSN: 2214-109X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/321226
Abstract: Background Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventing disease and improving human wellbeing. Comprehensive, high-resolution estimates are important to inform progress towards achieving this goal. We aimed to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of access to drinking water and sanitation facilities. Methods We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from 600 sources across more than 88 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to estimate access to drinking water and sanitation facilities on continuous continent-wide surfaces from 2000 to 2017, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. We estimated mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subcategories of facilities for drinking water (piped water on or off premises, other improved facilities, unimproved, and surface water) and sanitation facilities (septic or sewer sanitation, other improved, unimproved, and open defecation) with use of ordinal regression. We also estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths in children younger than 5 years attributed to unsafe facilities and estimated deaths that were averted by increased access to safe facilities in 2017, and analysed geographical inequality in access within LMICs. Findings Across LMICs, access to both piped water and improved water overall increased between 2000 and 2017, with progress varying spatially. For piped water, the safest water facility type, access increased from 40.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 39.4-40.7) to 50.3% (50.0-50.5), but was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to piped water was mostly concentrated in urban centres. Access to both sewer or septic sanitation and improved sanitation overall also increased across all LMICs during the study period. For sewer or septic sanitation, access was 46.3% (95% UI 46.1-46.5) in 2017, compared with 28.7% (28.5-29.0) in 2000. Although some units improved access to the safest drinking water or sanitation facilities since 2000, a large absolute number of people continued to not have access in several units with high access to such facilities (>80%) in 2017. More than 253 000 people did not have access to sewer or septic sanitation facilities in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe, despite 88.6% (95% UI 87.2-89.7) access overall. Many units were able to transition from the least safe facilities in 2000 to safe facilities by 2017; for units in which populations primarily practised open defecation in 2000, 686 (95% UI 664-711) of the 1830 (1797-1863) units transitioned to the use of improved sanitation. Geographical disparities in access to improved water across units decreased in 76.1% (95% UI 71.6-80.7) of countries from 2000 to 2017, and in 53.9% (50.6-59.6) of countries for access to improved sanitation, but remained evident subnationally in most countries in 2017. Interpretation Our estimates, combined with geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden, identify where efforts to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are most needed. By highlighting areas with successful approaches or in need of targeted interventions, our estimates can enable precision public health to effectively progress towards universal access to safe water and sanitation. Copyright (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Subject: CHILD GROWTH
SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS
GLOBAL BURDEN
NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTIONS
HYGIENE
DIARRHEA
DISEASE
TERRITORIES
QUALITY
AFRICA
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
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