Cancer Predisposition Genes in Cancer-Free Families

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/322005

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Zheng , G , Catalano , C , Bandapalli , O R , Paramasivam , N , Chattopadhyay , S , Schlesner , M , Sijmons , R , Hemminki , A , Dymerska , D , Lubinski , J , Hemminki , K & Försti , A 2020 , ' Cancer Predisposition Genes in Cancer-Free Families ' , Cancers , vol. 12 , no. 10 , 2770 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102770

Title: Cancer Predisposition Genes in Cancer-Free Families
Author: Zheng, Guoqiao; Catalano, Calogerina; Bandapalli, Obul Reddy; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Schlesner, Matthias; Sijmons, Rolf; Hemminki, Akseli; Dymerska, Dagmara; Lubinski, Jan; Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Oncology
Date: 2020-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 13
Belongs to series: Cancers
ISSN: 2072-6694
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/322005
Abstract: Simple Summary Familial clustering of cancer and identification of high- and low-risk cancer predisposition gene variants implicate that there are families that are at a high to moderate excess risk of cancer. We wanted to test genetically whether there are families protected from cancer. We whole-genome sequenced 51 elderly individuals without any personal or family history of cancer. We identified less high-risk loss-of-function variants in known and suggested cancer predisposition genes in these cancer-free individuals than in the general population. However, our results for low-risk variants were not conclusive. Our study suggests that random environmental causes of cancer are so dominant that a clear demarcation of cancer-free populations using genetic data may not be feasible. However, carrier identification of and counseling about prevalent high-risk cancer predisposition genes is useful. Familial clustering, twin concordance, and identification of high- and low-penetrance cancer predisposition variants support the idea that there are families that are at a high to moderate excess risk of cancer. To what extent there may be families that are protected from cancer is unknown. We wanted to test genetically whether cancer-free families share fewer breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer risk alleles than the population at large. We addressed this question by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 51 elderly cancer-free individuals whose numerous (ca. 1000) family members were found to be cancer-free ('cancer-free families', CFFs) based on face-to-face interviews. The average coverage of the 51 samples in the WGS was 42x. We compared cancer risk allele frequencies in cancer-free individuals with those in the general population available in public databases. The CFF members had fewer loss-of-function variants in suggested cancer predisposition genes compared to the ExAC data, and for high-risk cancer predisposition genes, no pathogenic variants were found in CFFs. For common low-penetrance breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer risk alleles, the results were not conclusive. The results suggest that, in line with twin and family studies, random environmental causes are so dominant that a clear demarcation of cancer-free populations using genetic data may not be feasible.
Subject: predisposing genes
high-risk genes
polygenic risk
random environment
SUSCEPTIBILITY
ASSOCIATION
IDENTIFICATION
MUTATIONS
VARIANTS
DATABASE
IMPACT
TWINS
RISK
3122 Cancers
3111 Biomedicine
1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology
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