An analysis of the effects of crude and fuel oil on the mortality of herring eggs using Bayesian meta-analysis techniques

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dc.contributor Helsingin yliopisto, Bio- ja ympäristötieteellinen tiedekunta fi
dc.contributor University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences en
dc.contributor Helsingfors universitet, Bio- och miljövetenskapliga fakulteten sv
dc.contributor.author Raubenheimer, Marie-Claire
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.uri URN:NBN:fi:hulib-202012094849
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/322575
dc.description.abstract Oil spillages represent a serious environmental hazard for flora and fauna of marine and coastal ecosystems. Though marine oil spills have decreased since the 1970s, the increasing production of petroleum goods remains a potential source of pollution due to its use and transportation. When aquatic organisms, including fish, are exposed to toxic oil compounds, this can cause sublethal morphological changes and increase mortality. In this context, herring have been frequently studied, and results suggest that particularly herrings eggs and larvae are highly susceptible to oil toxicity. In this thesis, a Bayesian meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of crude and fuel oil on the mortality of herring eggs from the genus Clupea. Observations from laboratory studies, collected during a literature review, served as input for the statistical analysis. To this end, Bayesian inference modeling was applied to generate posterior probability distributions for additional mortality caused by exposure to oil mixtures. Also, oil concentration, oil type, exposure time, and temperature were analyzed to study possible correlations with mortality impacts. The results of this study suggest that acute mortality of exposed herring eggs is similar to mortality observed for individuals exposed to only small concentrations or none at all. Of all evaluated oil types, medium grade crude oil caused the most significant change in instantaneous mortality with increasing oil concentration. Generally, distinct oil types had a greater influence on mortality outcomes than temperatures at the given concentrations. For the lowest temperatures, some correlations for increased mortality were found. Overall, the unexplained variability between the reviewed studies has a relatively small influence on mortality outcomes. In conclusion, the mortality of exposed herrings eggs is most likely delayed due to sublethal effects, rather than immediate, at the modeled concentrations. Altogether, uncertainty amongst the posterior probability distributions is high, indicating a wide possibility range for the monitored parameters' actual values. The reasons for elevated uncertainty likely stem from diverse experimental setups, biological differences between tested species, relatively small sample sizes, and model-related issues. Thus, future research could consider additional variables, information from observational studies and other fish species to reduce uncertainty in mortality outcomes. en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Helsingin yliopisto fi
dc.publisher University of Helsinki en
dc.publisher Helsingfors universitet sv
dc.subject Bayesian en
dc.subject meta-analysis en
dc.subject oil en
dc.subject pollution en
dc.subject herring en
dc.subject mortality en
dc.subject petroleum en
dc.subject hydrocarbon en
dc.title An analysis of the effects of crude and fuel oil on the mortality of herring eggs using Bayesian meta-analysis techniques en
dc.type.ontasot pro gradu -tutkielmat fi
dc.type.ontasot master's thesis en
dc.type.ontasot pro gradu-avhandlingar sv
dct.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:hulib-202012094849
dc.subject.specialization Ympäristömuutos fi
dc.subject.specialization Environmental Change en
dc.subject.specialization Miljöförändring sv
dc.subject.degreeprogram Ympäristömuutoksen ja globaalin kestävyyden maisteriohjelma fi
dc.subject.degreeprogram Master's Programme in Environmental Change and Global Sustainability en
dc.subject.degreeprogram Magisterprogrammet i miljöförändringar och global hållbarhet sv

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