Geodetic SAR for Height System Unification and Sea Level Research—Observation Concept and Preliminary Results in the Baltic Sea

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dc.contributor.author Gruber, Thomas
dc.contributor.author Ågren, Jonas
dc.contributor.author Angermann, Detlef
dc.contributor.author Ellmann, Artu
dc.contributor.author Engfeldt, Andreas
dc.contributor.author Gisinger, Christoph
dc.contributor.author Jaworski, Leszek
dc.contributor.author Marila, Simo
dc.contributor.author Nastula, Jolanta
dc.contributor.author Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
dc.contributor.author Oikonomidou, Xanthi
dc.contributor.author Poutanen, Markku
dc.contributor.author Saari, Timo
dc.contributor.author Schlaak, Marius
dc.contributor.author Swiatek, Anna
dc.contributor.author Varbla, Sander
dc.contributor.author Zdunek, Ryszard
dc.date.accessioned 2020-12-11T10:57:42Z
dc.date.available 2020-12-11T10:57:42Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.issn 2072-4292
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/322722
dc.description.abstract Traditionally, sea level is observed at tide gauge stations, which usually also serve as height reference stations for national leveling networks and therefore define a height system of a country. One of the main deficiencies to use tide gauge data for geodetic sea level research and height systems unification is that only a few stations are connected to the geometric network of a country by operating permanent GNSS receivers next to the tide gauge. As a new observation technique, absolute positioning by SAR using active transponders on ground can fill this gap by systematically observing time series of geometric heights at tide gauge stations. By additionally knowing the tide gauge geoid heights in a global height reference frame, one can finally obtain absolute sea level heights at each tide gauge. With this information the impact of climate change on the sea level can be quantified in an absolute manner and height systems can be connected across the oceans. First results from applying this technique at selected tide gauges at the Baltic coasts are promising but also exhibit some problems related to the new technique. The paper presents the concept of using the new observation type in an integrated sea level observing system and provides some early results for SAR positioning in the Baltic sea area. fi
dc.language.iso en fi
dc.publisher MDPI fi
dc.relation.ispartofseries Remote Sensing fi
dc.subject height system unification fi
dc.subject sea level fi
dc.subject SAR fi
dc.subject GNSS fi
dc.subject tide gauge fi
dc.subject geoid fi
dc.subject Sentinel-1 fi
dc.subject GOCE fi
dc.title Geodetic SAR for Height System Unification and Sea Level Research—Observation Concept and Preliminary Results in the Baltic Sea fi
dc.type Magazine Article fi
dc.format.volume 12 fi
dc.format.issue 22 fi

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