Dust emission, extinction, and scattering in LDN 1642

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Juvela , M , Neha , S , Mannfors , E , Saajasto , M , Ysard , N & Pelkonen , V-M 2020 , ' Dust emission, extinction, and scattering in LDN 1642 ' , Astronomy & Astrophysics , vol. 643 , 132 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202038611

Title: Dust emission, extinction, and scattering in LDN 1642
Author: Juvela, Mika; Neha, Sharma; Mannfors, Emma; Saajasto, Mika; Ysard, Nathalie; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
University of Helsinki, Particle Physics and Astrophysics
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
Date: 2020-11-13
Language: eng
Number of pages: 19
Belongs to series: Astronomy & Astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/323357
Abstract: Context. LDN 1642 is a rare example of a star-forming, high-latitude molecular cloud. The dust emission of LDN 1642 has already been studied extensively in the past, but its location also makes it a good target for studies of light scattering.Aims. We wish to study the near-infrared (NIR) light scattering in LDN 1642, its correlation with the cloud structure, and the ability of dust models to simultaneously explain observations of sub-millimetre dust emission, NIR extinction, and NIR scattering.Methods. We used observations made with the HAWK-I instrument to measure the NIR surface brightness and extinction in LDN 1642. These data were compared with Herschel observations of dust emission and, with the help of radiative transfer modelling, with the predictions calculated for different dust models.Results. We find, for LDN 1642, an optical depth ratio tau (250 mu m)/tau (J) approximate to 10(-3), confirming earlier findings of enhanced sub-millimetre emissivity. The relationships between the column density derived from dust emission and the NIR colour excesses are linear and consistent with the shape of the standard NIR extinction curve. The extinction peaks at A(J) = 2.6 mag, and the NIR surface brightness remains correlated with N(H-2) without saturation. Radiative transfer models are able to fit the sub-millimetre data with any of the tested dust models. However, these predict an NIR extinction that is higher and an NIR surface brightness that is lower than based on NIR observations. If the dust sub-millimetre emissivity is rescaled to the observed value of tau (250 mu m)/tau (J), dust models with high NIR albedo can reach the observed level of NIR surface brightness. The NIR extinction of the models tends to be higher than in the direct extinction measurements, which is also reflected in the shape of the NIR surface brightness spectra.Conclusions. The combination of emission, extinction, and scattering measurements provides strong constraints on dust models. The observations of LDN 1642 indicate clear dust evolution, including a strong increase in the sub-millimetre emissivity, which has not been fully explained by the current dust models yet.
Subject: ISM: clouds
infrared: ISM
submillimeter: ISM
stars: formation
stars: protostars
115 Astronomy, Space science

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