Variation in omega-3 and omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Produced by Different Phytoplankton Taxa at Early and Late Growth Phase

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Taipale , S , Peltomaa , E & Salmi , P 2020 , ' Variation in omega-3 and omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Produced by Different Phytoplankton Taxa at Early and Late Growth Phase ' , Biomolecules , vol. 10 , no. 4 , 559 . https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10040559

Title: Variation in omega-3 and omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Produced by Different Phytoplankton Taxa at Early and Late Growth Phase
Author: Taipale, Sami; Peltomaa, Elina; Salmi, Pauliina
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Jyväskylän yliopisto
University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences
Date: 2020-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 20
Belongs to series: Biomolecules
ISSN: 2218-273X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/323583
Abstract: Phytoplankton synthesizes essential omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for consumers in the aquatic food webs. Only certain phytoplankton taxa can synthesize eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3), whereas all phytoplankton taxa can synthesize shorter-chain omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA. Here, we experimentally studied how the proportion, concentration (per DW and cell-specific), and production (mu g FA L-1 day(-1)) of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA varied among six different phytoplankton main groups (16 freshwater strains) and between exponential and stationary growth phase. EPA and DHA concentrations, as dry weight, were similar among cryptophytes and diatoms. However, Cryptomonas erosa had two-27 times higher EPA and DHA content per cell than the other tested cryptophytes, diatoms, or golden algae. The growth was fastest with diatoms, green algae, and cyanobacteria, resulting in high production of medium chain omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA. Even though the dinoflagellate Peridinium cinctum grew slowly, the content of EPA and DHA per cell was high, resulting in a three- and 40-times higher production rate of EPA and DHA than in cryptophytes or diatoms. However, the production of EPA and DHA was 40 and three times higher in cryptophytes and diatoms than in golden algae (chrysophytes and synyrophytes), respectively. Our results show that phytoplankton taxon explains 56-84% and growth phase explains similar to 1% of variation in the cell-specific concentration and production of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA, supporting understanding that certain phytoplankton taxa play major roles in the synthesis of essential fatty acids. Based on the average proportion of PUFA of dry weight during growth, we extrapolated the seasonal availability of PUFA during phytoplankton succession in a clear water lake. This extrapolation demonstrated notable seasonal and interannual variation, the availability of EPA and DHA being prominent in early and late summer, when dinoflagellates or diatoms increased.
Subject: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
polyunsaturated fatty acids
phytoplankton
freshwater
nutritional value
ZOOPLANKTON
ALGAE
LAKES
EUTROPHICATION
TEMPERATURE
MICROALGAE
BIOFUEL
QUALITY
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