Kirkon sisäisen autonomian rajat : Tutkimus Suomen evenkelis-luterilaisen kirkon ja valtion välisistä suhteista kirkon sisäisen autonomian näkökulmasta vuosina 1965-2019

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-6949-5
Title: Kirkon sisäisen autonomian rajat : Tutkimus Suomen evenkelis-luterilaisen kirkon ja valtion välisistä suhteista kirkon sisäisen autonomian näkökulmasta vuosina 1965-2019
Author: Hartoneva, Anne
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology
Doctoral Programme in Theology and Religous Studies
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2021-01-30
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-6949-5
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/324252
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (monograph)
Abstract: In this study, I examine the relationship between the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the State, especially from the perspective of the legal status of the Church as both a religious and a public community in Finnish society and legislation. In this regard, I examine the space given to the Church by the State through its legislation, as well as the views of the supreme overseers of legality, that is the Chancellor of Justice and the Parliamentary Ombudsman, on issues that may belong to the Church's autonomy or are close to that autonomy. It is a question of how much the State can limit the independence of the Church and how close it is legal and appropriate to come to the limit of the internal autonomy of the Church. In this study it is also a question of how the Church interprets the limits of its autonomy and the permanence of these limits. From this point of view, I examine how the General Synod making legislative proposals for the enactment of the Church Act and making other decisions, has taken a stand on the internal autonomy of the Church and its limits, and on the Church´s status under public law. Central to the study is how and on what grounds the area of the internal autonomy of the Church may have changed during the period between 1965 and 2019, which included significant social changes. This study belongs to the field of practical theology. The subject of this study is the tension between the internal autonomy of the Church and its status under public law. I examine three issues that are central to the activities of the Church. Each of them is opened up by three issues. The first question is the order and administration of the Church, the issues to be considered in this context are 1) the clergy representation structure and the lay repesentation structure in the administration of the Church, 2) the tasks and activity of the General Synod, and 3) the legal administrative activity of the Church. The second issue to be examined is doctrinal positions and religious practice. The issues that will be considered in this context are 1) the calendar location of the religious holidays, the days of prayer and the proclamation of the day of prayer, 2) the freedom of religion of the Church, and 3) the oath, promise, and affirmation as the form of commitment. The third issue to be examined is the Church's duty to protect fundamental and human rights. The issues to be considered in this context are 1) the interpretation of the priesthood as a question of office-holder´s freedom of religion and conscience, 2) marriage and its blessing as a question of office-holder´s freedom of religion and conscience, and 3) the freedom of religion and conscience in school teaching. It can be concluded from the research material that the special legislative procedure of the Church Act well safeguards the internal autonomy of the Church. However, the General Synod has not clearly expressed what issues are protected by the internal autonomy of the Church, where the limits of the internal autonomy of the Church are, and to what extent the border is absolutely inviolable. In many of its decisions which are important to the nature, unity, and mission of the Church, the General Synod came to solutions which were a compromise by nature, general, or half-way solutions that blurred the area and boundary of the Church's internal autonomy. The decisions of the General Synod have also not had some kind of legal force, because the same issue was brought to the General Synod soon after the previous decision and on several occasions. This has also blurred the area of the internal autonomy of the Church. It is also notable that as the study period proceeded, the General Synod increasingly based its decisions on general societal considerations, such as the requirements of fundamental and human rights, although decisions concerning the Church should be justified primarily on theological considerations. It can be concluded from the research material that in the legislation concerning the Church, the State largely took into account the position of the Church. The supreme overseers of legality approached the limit of the Church’s internal autonomy mainly in situations where an individual had felt the need for legal protection because of the Church measures. The overseers of legality based their decisions on general legislation, on which also the complainants had based their complaints in most cases. At the end of the study, I suggest that one solution to clarify the positions of the General Synod on the area of the internal autonomy of the Church could be to consider issues within the Church's autonomy in a similar way the Parliament´s Constitutional Law Committee have defined how the fundamental rights can be restricted. On the basis of such a consideration, pre-determined requirements would be set to the change of issues within the internal autonomy of the Church.Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, minkälainen asema evankelis-luterilaisella kirkolla on uskonnollisena ja julkisoikeudellisena yhteisönä suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa ja lainsäädännössä. Tässä tarkoituksessa tarkastellaan valtion lainsäädännöllään kirkolle antamaa elintilaa sekä valtioneuvoston oikeuskanslerin ja eduskunnan oikeusasiamiehen käsityksiä mahdollisesti kirkon sisäisen autonomian alaan kuuluvista ja sitä lähellä olevista kysymyksistä. Kyse on siitä, miten paljon valtio voi rajata kirkon itsenäisyyttä ja miten lähelle kirkon sisäisen autonomian rajaa se voi tulla. Kyse on myös siitä, miten kirkko tulkitsee autonomiansa rajoja ja niiden pysyvyyttä. Kirkon näkökulman selvittämiseksi tutkitaan, miten kirkolliskokous on päätöksenteossaan ottanut kantaa kirkon sisäiseen autonomiaan ja sen rajoihin sekä julkisoikeudelliseen asemaan. Tutkimuksessa on keskeistä se, miten ja millä perusteilla kirkon sisäisen autonomian alue on mahdollisesti muuttunut vuosien 1965–2019 välillä. Kirkon sisäisen autonomian ja julkisyhteisöaseman välistä jännitettä tutkitaan tarkastelemalla kolmea kirkon toimintaan keskeisesti kuuluvaa asiakokonaisuutta. Nämä ovat kirkon järjestysmuoto ja hallinto, opilliset kannanotot ja uskonnon harjoittamisen käytännöt sekä kirkon perus- ja ihmisoikeuksien turvaamisvelvollisuus. Tutkimusaineistosta on pääteltävissä, että kirkkolain erityinen lainsäätämisjärjestys turvaa hyvin kirkon sisäisen autonomian. Kirkolliskokous kirkkolakiehdotuksen tekijänä ei kuitenkaan ole ilmaissut selkeästi, mitä asioita kirkon sisäisellä autonomialla suojellaan, missä ovat kirkon sisäisen autonomian rajat ja miltä osin raja on loukkaamaton. Kirkolliskokous päätyi useissa kirkon olemuksen, yhtenäisyyden ja tehtävän toteuttamisen kannalta olennaisissa päätöksissään sillä tavoin kompromissin luonteisiin, yleispiirteisiin tai puolitiehen jääneisiin ratkaisuihin, että kirkon sisäisen autonomian alue hämärtyi. Tutkimusaineistosta voi päätellä, että kirkkoa koskevassa lainsäädännössä valtio otti kirkon aseman pääosin hyvin huomioon. Oikeuskansleri ja oikeusasiamies lähestyivät kirkon sisäisen autonomian rajaa lähinnä tilanteissa, joissa yksilö oli kokenut tarvitsevansa oikeussuojaa kirkon toimenpiteiden vuoksi. Näissä ratkaisuissaan laillisuusvalvojat nojautuivat yleiseen lainsäädäntöön.
Subject: teologia
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