Host-shift as the cause of emerging infectious diseases : Experimental approaches using Drosophila-virus interactions

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Pimentel , A C , Beraldo , C S & Cogni , R 2021 , ' Host-shift as the cause of emerging infectious diseases : Experimental approaches using Drosophila-virus interactions ' , Genetics and Molecular Biology , vol. 44 , no. 1 , 20200197 . https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2020-0197

Title: Host-shift as the cause of emerging infectious diseases : Experimental approaches using Drosophila-virus interactions
Author: Pimentel, Andre C.; Beraldo, Camila S.; Cogni, Rodrigo
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Insect Symbiosis Ecology and Evolution
Date: 2021
Language: eng
Number of pages: 8
Belongs to series: Genetics and Molecular Biology
ISSN: 1415-4757
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/324532
Abstract: Host shifts, when a cross-species transmission of a pathogen can lead to successful infections, are the main cause of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. A complex challenge faced by the scientific community is to address the factors that determine whether the cross-species transmissions will result in spillover or sustained onwards infections. Here we review recent literature and present a perspective on current approaches we are using to understand the mechanisms underlying host shifts. We highlight the usefulness of the interactions between Drosophila species and viruses as an ideal study model. Additionally, we discuss how cross-infection experiments - when pathogens from a natural reservoir are intentionally injected in novel host species-can test the effect cross-species transmissions may have on the fitness of virus and host, and how the host phylogeny may influence this response. We also discuss experiments evaluating how cooccurrence with other viruses or the presence of the endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia may affect the performance of new viruses in a novel host. Finally, we discuss the need of surveys of virus diversity in natural populations using next-generation sequencing technologies. In the long term, these approaches can contribute to a better understanding of the basic biology of host shifts.
Subject: Wolbachia
evolution
infection
cooccurrence
virus diversity
ANTIVIRAL IMMUNITY
WOLBACHIA
TOLERANCE
EVOLUTION
RESISTANCE
DENGUE
INCOMPATIBILITY
VIRULENCE
DEFENSE
STRAIN
1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology
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