Effects of Environmental Factors on Severity and Mortality of COVID-19

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Kifer , D , Bugada , D , Villar-Garcia , J , Gudelj , I , Menni , C , Sudre , C , Vuckovic , F , Ugrina , I , Lorini , L F , Posso , M , Bettinelli , S , Ughi , N , Maloberti , A , Epis , O , Giannattasio , C , Rossetti , C , Kalogjera , L , Persec , J , Ollivere , L , Ollivere , B J , Yan , H , Cai , T , Aithal , G P , Steves , C J , Kantele , A , Kajova , M , Vapalahti , O , Sajantila , A , Wojtowicz , R , Wierzba , W , Krol , Z , Zaczynski , A , Zycinska , K , Postula , M , Luksic , I , Civljak , R , Markotic , A , Brachmann , J , Markl , A , Mahnkopf , C , Murray , B , Ourselin , S , Valdes , A M , Horcajada , J P , Castells , X , Pascual , J , Allegri , M , Primorac , D , Spector , T D , Barrios , C & Lauc , G 2021 , ' Effects of Environmental Factors on Severity and Mortality of COVID-19 ' , Frontiers in Medicine , vol. 7 , 607786 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.607786

Title: Effects of Environmental Factors on Severity and Mortality of COVID-19
Author: Kifer, Domagoj; Bugada, Dario; Villar-Garcia, Judit; Gudelj, Ivan; Menni, Cristina; Sudre, Carole; Vuckovic, Frano; Ugrina, Ivo; Lorini, Luca F.; Posso, Margarita; Bettinelli, Silvia; Ughi, Nicola; Maloberti, Alessandro; Epis, Oscar; Giannattasio, Cristina; Rossetti, Claudio; Kalogjera, Livije; Persec, Jasminka; Ollivere, Luke; Ollivere, Benjamin J.; Yan, Huadong; Cai, Ting; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Steves, Claire J.; Kantele, Anu; Kajova, Mikael; Vapalahti, Olli; Sajantila, Antti; Wojtowicz, Rafal; Wierzba, Waldemar; Krol, Zbigniew; Zaczynski, Artur; Zycinska, Katarina; Postula, Marek; Luksic, Ivica; Civljak, Rok; Markotic, Alemka; Brachmann, Johannes; Markl, Andreas; Mahnkopf, Christian; Murray, Benjamin; Ourselin, Sebastien; Valdes, Ana M.; Horcajada, Juan P.; Castells, Xavier; Pascual, Julio; Allegri, Massimo; Primorac, Dragan; Spector, Tim D.; Barrios, Clara; Lauc, Gordan
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Medicine
University of Helsinki, Department of Medicine
University of Helsinki, Department of Virology
University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine

Date: 2021-01-20
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Frontiers in Medicine
ISSN: 2296-858X
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.607786
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/326775
Abstract: Background: Most respiratory viruses show pronounced seasonality, but for SARS-CoV-2, this still needs to be documented. Methods: We examined the disease progression of COVID-19 in 6,914 patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and China. In addition, we evaluated progress of disease symptoms in 37,187 individuals reporting symptoms into the COVID Symptom Study application. Findings: Meta-analysis of the mortality risk in seven European hospitals estimated odds ratios per 1-day increase in the admission date to be 0.981 (0.973-0.988, p <0.001) and per increase in ambient temperature of 1 degrees C to be 0.854 (0.773-0.944, p = 0.007). Statistically significant decreases of comparable magnitude in median hospital stay, probability of transfer to the intensive care unit, and need for mechanical ventilation were also observed in most, but not all hospitals. The analysis of individually reported symptoms of 37,187 individuals in the UK also showed the decrease in symptom duration and disease severity with time. Interpretation: Severity of COVID-19 in Europe decreased significantly between March and May and the seasonality of COVID-19 is the most likely explanation.
Subject: COVID-19
3111 Biomedicine
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
11832 Microbiology and virology

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