Time trends in placenta-mediated pregnancy complications after assisted reproductive technology in the Nordic countries

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Petersen. , S H , Bergh , C , Gissler , M , Åsvold , B O , Romundstad , L B , Tiitinen , A , Spangmose , A L , Pinborg , A , Wennerholm , U-B , Henningsen , A-K A & Opdahl , S 2020 , ' Time trends in placenta-mediated pregnancy complications after assisted reproductive technology in the Nordic countries ' , American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 223 , no. 2 , ARTN 226.e1-19 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.030

Title: Time trends in placenta-mediated pregnancy complications after assisted reproductive technology in the Nordic countries
Author: Petersen., Sindre H.; Bergh, Christina; Gissler, Mika; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Romundstad, Liv B.; Tiitinen, Aila; Spangmose, Anne L.; Pinborg, Anja; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A.; Opdahl, Signe
Contributor: University of Helsinki, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
Date: 2020-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 19
Belongs to series: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN: 0002-9378
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/327024
Abstract: Background The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is increasing worldwide and conception after assisted reproduction currently comprises 3-6% of birth cohorts in the Nordic countries. The risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications is higher after ART compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Whether the excess risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in pregnancies following assisted reproduction has changed over time, is unknown. Objectives To investigate whether time trends in risk of pregnancy complications (hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, placental abruption and placenta previa) differ for pregnancies after ART compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies during three decades of assisted reproduction treatment in the Nordic countries. Study Design In a population-based cohort study, with data from national health registries in Denmark (1994-2014), Finland (1990-2014), Norway (1988-2015) and Sweden (1988-2015), we included 6,830,578 pregnancies resulting in delivery. Among these, 146,998 (2.2%) were pregnancies after assisted reproduction (125,708 singleton pregnancies, 20,668 twin pregnancies and 622 of higher order plurality) and 6,683,132 (97.8%) pregnancies were conceived spontaneously (6,595,185 singleton pregnancies, 87,106 twin pregnancies and 1,289 of higher order plurality). We used logistic regression with post-estimation to estimate absolute risks and risk differences for each complication. We repeated analyses for singleton and twin pregnancies, separately. In sub-samples with available information, we also adjusted for maternal body mass index, smoking during pregnancy, previous cesarean section, culture duration and cryopreservation. Results The risk of each placental complication was consistently higher in pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies across the study period, except for hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancies, where risks were similar. Risk of hypertensive disorders increased over time in twin pregnancies for both conception methods, but more strongly for pregnancies following ART (risk difference 1.73 percentage points per 5 years, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.11) than for spontaneously conceived twins (risk difference 0.75 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.89). No clear time trends were found for hypertensive disorders in singleton pregnancies. Risk of placental abruption decreased over time in all groups (risk difference -0.16 percentage points, 95% confidence interval -0.19 to -0.12 and -0.06 percentage points, 95% confidence interval -0.06 to -0.05 for pregnancies after assisted reproduction and spontaneously conceived pregnancies, respectively, for singletons and multiple pregnancies combined). Over time, the risk of placenta previa increased in pregnancies after assisted reproduction among both singletons (risk difference 0.21 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 0.27) and twins (risk difference 0.30 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.43), but remained stable in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. When adjusting for culture duration, the temporal increase in placenta previa became weaker in all groups of ART pregnancies, whereas adjustment for cryopreservation moderately attenuated trends in ART twin pregnancies. Conclusions The risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications following ART remains higher compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies, despite declining rates of multiple pregnancies. For hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and placental abruption, pregnancies after assisted reproduction follow the same time trends as the background population, whereas for placenta previa, risk has increased over time in pregnancies after ART.
Subject: Preeclampsia
hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
gestational hypertension
placental abruption
placenta previa
assisted reproduction
in vitro fertilization
reproductive medicine
temporal changes
twins
FERTILIZATION
METAANALYSIS
QUALITY
MEDICAL BIRTH REGISTRY
RISK
PREECLAMPSIA
preeclampsia
PERINATAL OUTCOMES
COHORT
SINGLETON PREGNANCIES
VALIDITY
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
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