T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors

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Salem, M.; Pajunen, M.I.; Jun, J.W.; Skurnik, M. T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors. Viruses 2021, 13, 296.

Title: T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors
Author: Salem, Mabruka; Pajunen, Maria I.; Jun, Jin Woo; Skurnik, Mikael
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2021-02-13
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/327153
Abstract: The <i>Yersinia</i> bacteriophages fPS-2, fPS-65, and fPS-90, isolated from pig stools, have long contractile tails and elongated heads, and they belong to genus Tequatroviruses in the order <i>Caudovirales</i>. The phages exhibited relatively wide host ranges among <i>Yersinia pseudotuberculosis</i> and related species. One-step growth curve experiments revealed that the phages have latent periods of 50–80 min with burst sizes of 44–65 virions per infected cell. The phage genomes consist of circularly permuted dsDNA of 169,060, 167,058, and 167,132 bp in size, respectively, with a G + C content 35.3%. The number of predicted genes range from 267 to 271. The phage genomes are 84–92% identical to each other and ca 85% identical to phage T4. The phage receptors were identified by whole genome sequencing of spontaneous phage-resistant mutants. The phage-resistant strains had mutations in the <i>ompF, galU, hldD,</i> or <i>hldE</i> genes. OmpF is a porin, and the other genes encode lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic enzymes. The <i>ompF</i>, <i>galU</i>, and <i>hldE</i> mutants were successfully complemented <i>in trans</i> with respective wild-type genes. The host recognition was assigned to long tail fiber tip protein Gp38, analogous to that of T-even phages such as <i>Salmonella</i> phage S16, specifically to the distal β-helices connecting loops.


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