An ethnobotanical survey and antifungal activity of Piper guineense used for the treatment of fungal infections in West-African traditional medicine

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Mgbeahuruike , E E , Holm , Y , Vuorela , H , Amandikwa , C & Fyhrquist , P 2019 , ' An ethnobotanical survey and antifungal activity of Piper guineense used for the treatment of fungal infections in West-African traditional medicine ' , Journal of Ethnopharmacology , vol. 229 , pp. 157-166 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.005

Title: An ethnobotanical survey and antifungal activity of Piper guineense used for the treatment of fungal infections in West-African traditional medicine
Author: Mgbeahuruike, Eunice Ego; Holm, Yvonne; Vuorela, Heikki; Amandikwa, Chinyere; Fyhrquist, Pia
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Pharmaceutical Design and Discovery group
University of Helsinki, Drug Research Program
University of Helsinki, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences
Date: 2019-01-30
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
ISSN: 0378-8741
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/327406
Abstract: Ethnobotanical relevance: Piper guineense occurs commonly in West Africa where it is used for fungal infections instead of the costly and not always accessible conventional antifungals. Fungal, yeast-based diseases are common in West-Africa especially among those living with HIV/AIDS, and thus this study was performed in Imo state, South-Eastern Nigeria, where P. guineense is predominantly used for the treatment of fungal diseases, such as skin rashes, oral thrush and vaginosis. Aim of study: The scarce number of previous studies on the documentation of the traditional uses of P. guineense extracts for the treatment of fungal infections in Nigeria prompted this survey. The investigation focused on how traditional healers recognize and diagnose fungal infections, how P. guineense is collected, on the various parts used for the treatments, methods of preparations, administrations and treatments. In addition, an in vitro anti fungal screening of P. guineense fruit and leaf extracts of various polarities, and piperine and piperlongumine, representing the main constituents in these extracts, were performed. Methods: A house to house ethnobotanical survey was conducted using questionnaires. Twenty traditional medical practitioners (TMP) and herb sellers from ten villages were interviewed. Four human pathogenic strains of yeast and Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like basidiomycete causing meningitis in immunocompromised individuals, were used for the antifungal screening. Results: The traditional medical practitioners (TMP) and herb sellers explained that the leaves and fruits are the most commonly used plant parts for the treatments. The oral intake of the extracts in locally produced bamboo alcohol (Kai-kai) is the most common method of administration. In accordance with these recorded traditional uses, we found that extracts of P. guineense were growth inhibitory against the fungal strains with MIC values ranging from 39 to 2500 g/mL. The lowest MIC value of 39 g/mL was recorded for a methanol fruit extract against Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. In addition, ethanol and hexane fruit extracts were effective against the growth of C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively, with a MIC of 78 g/mL. Piperlongumine and piperine were active against C. albicans with MIC values of 39 and 78 g/mL respectively. Conclusion: P. guineense fruit and leaf extracts, as well as their piperamide alkaloid constituents piperine and piperlongumine, have interesting antifungal properties and could have potential as new antifungal scaffolds. Our results warrant further in-depth investigations to isolate and characterize piperamide alkaloids and other compounds responsible for the antifungal activity in the extracts.
Subject: Piper guineense
Antifungal uses
Ethnobotanical survey
Antifungal screening
Piperine
Piperlongumine
CANDIDA-ALBICANS
PLANTS
RESISTANCE
PATHOGENS
EXTRACTS
MALARIA
REGION
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
317 Pharmacy
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