Nano-vault architecture mitigates stress in silicon-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries

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Haro , M , Kumar , P , Zhao , J , Koutsogiannis , P , Porkovich , A J , Ziadi , Z , Bouloumis , T , Singh , V , Juarez-Perez , E J , Toulkeridou , E , Nordlund , K , Djurabekova , F , Sowwan , M & Grammatikopoulos , P 2021 , ' Nano-vault architecture mitigates stress in silicon-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries ' , Communications materials , vol. 2 , no. 1 , 16 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s43246-021-00119-0

Title: Nano-vault architecture mitigates stress in silicon-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries
Author: Haro, Marta; Kumar, Pawan; Zhao, Junlei; Koutsogiannis, Panagiotis; Porkovich, Alexander James; Ziadi, Zakaria; Bouloumis, Theodoros; Singh, Vidyadhar; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J.; Toulkeridou, Evropi; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura; Sowwan, Mukhles; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Science
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
Date: 2021-02-05
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Communications materials
ISSN: 2662-4443
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/328750
Abstract: Nanomaterials undergoing cyclic swelling-deswelling benefit from inner void spaces that help accommodate significant volumetric changes. Such flexibility, however, typically comes at a price of reduced mechanical stability, which leads to component deterioration and, eventually, failure. Here, we identify an optimised building block for silicon-based lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes, fabricate it with a ligand- and effluent-free cluster beam deposition method, and investigate its robustness by atomistic computer simulations. A columnar amorphous-silicon film was grown on a tantalum-nanoparticle scaffold due to its shadowing effect. PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping revealed a critical change in mechanical behaviour when columns touched forming a vaulted structure. The resulting maximisation of measured elastic modulus (similar to 120GPa) is ascribed to arch action, a well-known civil engineering concept. The vaulted nanostructure displays a sealed surface resistant to deformation that results in reduced electrode-electrolyte interface and increased Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, its vertical repetition in a double-layered aqueduct-like structure improves both the capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency of the LIB. Lithiation of anodes during cycling of lithium-ion batteries generates stresses that reduce operation lifetime. Here, a composite silicon-based anode with a nanoscale vaulted architecture shows high mechanical stability and electrochemical performance in a lithium-ion battery.
Subject: 114 Physical sciences
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