Grading Evolution and Contemporary Prognostic Biomarkers of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

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Sopyllo , K , Erickson , A M & Mirtti , T 2021 , ' Grading Evolution and Contemporary Prognostic Biomarkers of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer ' , Cancers , vol. 13 , no. 4 , 628 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040628

Title: Grading Evolution and Contemporary Prognostic Biomarkers of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer
Author: Sopyllo, Konrad; Erickson, Andrew M.; Mirtti, Tuomas
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine
University of Helsinki, University of Oxford
University of Helsinki, Research Program in Systems Oncology
Date: 2021-02
Number of pages: 21
Belongs to series: Cancers
ISSN: 2072-6694
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/329152
Abstract: Simple Summary Prostate cancer treatment decisions are based on clinical stage and histological diagnosis, including Gleason grading assessed by a pathologist, in biopsies. Prior to staging and grading, serum or blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are measured and often trigger diagnostic examinations. However, PSA is best suited as a marker of cancer relapse after initial treatment. In this review, we first narratively describe the evolution of histological grading, the current status of Gleason pattern-based diagnostics and glance into future methodology of risk assessment by histological examination. In the second part, we systematically review the biomarkers that have been shown, independent from clinical characteristics, to correlate with clinically relevant end-points, i.e., occurrence of metastases, disease-specific mortality and overall survival after initial treatment of localized prostate cancer. Gleason grading remains the strongest prognostic parameter in localized prostate adenocarcinoma. We have here outlined the evolution and contemporary practices in pathological evaluation of prostate tissue samples for Gleason score and Grade group. The state of more observer-independent grading methods with the aid of artificial intelligence is also reviewed. Additionally, we conducted a systematic review of biomarkers that hold promise in adding independent prognostic or predictive value on top of clinical parameters, Grade group and PSA. We especially focused on hard end points during the follow-up, i.e., occurrence of metastasis, disease-specific mortality and overall mortality. In peripheral blood, biopsy-detected prostate cancer or in surgical specimens, we can conclude that there are more than sixty biomarkers that have been shown to have independent prognostic significance when adjusted to conventional risk assessment or grouping. Our search brought up some known putative markers and panels, as expected. Also, the synthesis in the systematic review indicated markers that ought to be further studied as part of prospective trials and in well characterized patient cohorts in order to increase the resolution of the current clinico-pathological prognostic factors.
Subject: prostate cancer
survival
biomarker
Gleason grading
grade grouping
3122 Cancers
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