Prediction, identification and progression of histopathological liver disease activity in children with intestinal failure

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Mutanen , A , Lohi , J , Merras-Salmio , L , Koivusalo , A & Pakarinen , M P 2021 , ' Prediction, identification and progression of histopathological liver disease activity in children with intestinal failure ' , Journal of Hepatology , vol. 74 , no. 3 , pp. 593-602 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.09.023

Title: Prediction, identification and progression of histopathological liver disease activity in children with intestinal failure
Author: Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P.
Contributor organization: Staff Services
HUS Children and Adolescents
Lastenkirurgian yksikkö
University of Helsinki
Helsinki University Hospital Area
HUSLAB
Department of Pathology
Clinicum
Children's Hospital
Date: 2021-03
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Journal of Hepatology
ISSN: 0168-8278
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.09.023
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/329224
Abstract: Background & Aims: Diagnostic criteria, progression risk and optimal monitoring for intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) remain undefined. We assessed predictors, noninvasive markers and progression of histopathological liver disease in patients with IF. Methods: In total, 77 children with IF and median age of 1.7 years underwent diagnostic liver biopsy, which was repeated in 48 patients after 2.9 years with simultaneous evaluation of liver biochemistry, liver stiffness, serum citrulline (a surrogate for viable enterocyte mass), spleen size, esophageal varices and clinical data. Patients were staged according to histopathological liver disease activity: active IFALD (cholestasis and/or inflammation), chronic IFALD (significant fibrosis and/or steatosis), or no IFALD (none of these features). Results: Diagnostic liver biopsy revealed active, chronic or no IFALD in 48%, 21% and 31% of patients. Active IFALD was segregated by low serum citrulline, parenteral nutrition (PN) dependency and young age, while weaning off PN and older age predicted chronic IFALD. Although the liver histopathology in most patients either normalized (52%) or transformed to a less reactive (chronic) disease stage (23%), 19% of patients retained and 6.3% progressed to an active cholestatic/inflammatory IFALD phenotype. Decreased serum citrulline and PN-dependency also predicted active IFALD in follow-up biopsies. Increased median liver biochemistry values and liver stiffness only associated with active IFALD, which was accurately identified by gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), citrulline and liver stiffness, their combinations reaching diagnostic and follow-up AUROC values above 0.90. Conclusions: Active IFALD, essentially predicted by intestinal disruption and PN-dependency, was accurately detected by GGT, liver stiffness and citrulline, which together with recent advances in clinical management options, provides new avenues for monitoring and targeted liver protection in patients with IF. Lay summary: Liver disease is a common and critical complication in patients with intestinal failure, who require intravenous nutrition for survival due to severe intestinal dysfunction. We showed that both intravenous nutrition dependency and intestinal disruption essentially predicted development of active histopathological liver disease, which persisted in 25% of patients during long-term follow-up and could be accurately detected without the need for liver biopsy. Identification of the active and potentially progressive histopathology offers new possibilities for monitoring and targeted liver protection in patients with intestinal failure. (C) 2020 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Subject: Citrulline
Glutamyl transferase
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease
Parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis
Short bowel syndrome
Liver injury
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by_nc_nd
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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