Xylo-Oligosaccharides in Prevention of Hepatic Steatosis and Adipose Tissue Inflammation: Associating Taxonomic and Metabolomic Patterns in Fecal Microbiomes with Biclustering

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Hintikka, J.; Lensu, S.; Mäkinen, E.; Karvinen, S.; Honkanen, M.; Lindén, J.; Garrels, T.; Pekkala, S.; Lahti, L. Xylo-Oligosaccharides in Prevention of Hepatic Steatosis and Adipose Tissue Inflammation: Associating Taxonomic and Metabolomic Patterns in Fecal Microbiomes with Biclustering. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4049.

Title: Xylo-Oligosaccharides in Prevention of Hepatic Steatosis and Adipose Tissue Inflammation: Associating Taxonomic and Metabolomic Patterns in Fecal Microbiomes with Biclustering
Author: Hintikka, Jukka; Lensu, Sanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Karvinen, Sira; Honkanen, Marjaana; Lindén, Jere; Garrels, Tim; Pekkala, Satu; Lahti, Leo
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2021-04-12
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/329332
Abstract: We have shown that prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) increased beneficial gut microbiota (GM) and prevented high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but the mechanisms associated with these effects are not clear. We studied whether XOS affects adipose tissue inflammation and insulin signaling, and whether the GM and fecal metabolome explain associated patterns. XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 12 weeks in male Wistar rats (<i>n</i> = 10/group). Previously analyzed GM and fecal metabolites were biclustered to reduce data dimensionality and identify interpretable groups of co-occurring genera and metabolites. Based on our findings, biclustering provides a useful algorithmic method for capturing such joint signatures. On the HFD, XOS-supplemented rats showed lower number of adipose tissue crown-like structures, increased phosphorylation of AKT in liver and adipose tissue as well as lower expression of hepatic miRNAs. XOS-supplemented rats had more fecal glycine and less hypoxanthine, isovalerate, branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids. Several bacterial genera were associated with the metabolic signatures. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of XOS on hepatic steatosis involved decreased adipose tissue inflammation and likely improved insulin signaling, which were further associated with fecal metabolites and GM.


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