Global population genetic structure and demographic trajectories of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens

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Kaya , C , Generalovic , T N , Stahls , G , Hauser , M , Samayoa , A C , Nunes-Silva , C G , Roxburgh , H , Wohlfahrt , J , Ewusie , E A , Kenis , M , Hanboonsong , Y , Orozco , J , Carrejo , N , Nakamura , S , Gasco , L , Rojo , S , Tanga , C M , Meier , R , Rhode , C , Picard , C J , Jiggins , C D , Leiber , F , Tomberlin , J K , Hasselmann , M , Blanckenhorn , W U , Kapun , M & Sandrock , C 2021 , ' Global population genetic structure and demographic trajectories of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens ' , BMC Biology , vol. 19 , no. 1 , 94 .

Title: Global population genetic structure and demographic trajectories of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens
Author: Kaya, Cengiz; Generalovic, Tomas N.; Stahls, Gunilla; Hauser, Martin; Samayoa, Ana C.; Nunes-Silva, Carlos G.; Roxburgh, Heather; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Ewusie, Ebenezer A.; Kenis, Marc; Hanboonsong, Yupa; Orozco, Jesus; Carrejo, Nancy; Nakamura, Satoshi; Gasco, Laura; Rojo, Santos; Tanga, Chrysantus M.; Meier, Rudolf; Rhode, Clint; Picard, Christine J.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Leiber, Florian; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Hasselmann, Martin; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Kapun, Martin; Sandrock, Christoph
Contributor organization: Gunilla Ståhls-Mäkelä / Principal Investigator
Finnish Museum of Natural History
Date: 2021-05-05
Language: eng
Number of pages: 22
Belongs to series: BMC Biology
ISSN: 1741-7007
Abstract: Background The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is the most promising insect candidate for nutrient-recycling through bioconversion of organic waste into biomass, thereby improving sustainability of protein supplies for animal feed and facilitating transition to a circular economy. Contrary to conventional livestock, genetic resources of farmed insects remain poorly characterised. We present the first comprehensive population genetic characterisation of H. illucens. Based on 15 novel microsatellite markers, we genotyped and analysed 2862 individuals from 150 wild and captive populations originating from 57 countries on seven subcontinents. Results We identified 16 well-distinguished genetic clusters indicating substantial global population structure. The data revealed genetic hotspots in central South America and successive northwards range expansions within the indigenous ranges of the Americas. Colonisations and naturalisations of largely unique genetic profiles occurred on all non-native continents, either preceded by demographically independent founder events from various single sources or involving admixture scenarios. A decisive primarily admixed Polynesian bridgehead population serially colonised the entire Australasian region and its secondarily admixed descendants successively mediated invasions into Africa and Europe. Conversely, captive populations from several continents traced back to a single North American origin and exhibit considerably reduced genetic diversity, although some farmed strains carry distinct genetic signatures. We highlight genetic footprints characteristic of progressing domestication due to increasing socio-economic importance of H. illucens, and ongoing introgression between domesticated strains globally traded for large-scale farming and wild populations in some regions. Conclusions We document the dynamic population genetic history of a cosmopolitan dipteran of South American origin shaped by striking geographic patterns. These reflect both ancient dispersal routes, and stochastic and heterogeneous anthropogenic introductions during the last century leading to pronounced diversification of worldwide structure of H. illucens. Upon the recent advent of its agronomic commercialisation, however, current human-mediated translocations of the black soldier fly largely involve genetically highly uniform domesticated strains, which meanwhile threaten the genetic integrity of differentiated unique local resources through introgression. Our in-depth reconstruction of the contemporary and historical demographic trajectories of H. illucens emphasises benchmarking potential for applied future research on this emerging model of the prospering insect-livestock sector.
Subject: Allelic richness
Approximate Bayesian computation
Founder effect
Genetic differentiation
Genetic drift
Invasive species
Isolation by distance
Serial introductions
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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