Genotypic traits and tradeoffs of fast growth in silver birch, a pioneer tree

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Mikola , J , Koikkalainen , K , Rasehorn , M , Silfver , T , Paaso , U & Rousi , M 2021 , ' Genotypic traits and tradeoffs of fast growth in silver birch, a pioneer tree ' , Oecologia , vol. 196 , pp. 1049-1060 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-021-04986-9

Title: Genotypic traits and tradeoffs of fast growth in silver birch, a pioneer tree
Author: Mikola, Juha; Koikkalainen, Katariina; Rasehorn, Mira; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Rousi, Matti
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme
University of Helsinki, University of Eastern Finland (UEF)
University of Helsinki, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme
Date: 2021-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Oecologia
ISSN: 0029-8549
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/333788
Abstract: Fast-growing and slow-growing plant species are suggested to show integrated economics spectrums and the tradeoffs of fast growth are predicted to emerge as susceptibility to herbivory and resource competition. We tested if these predictions also hold for fast-growing and slow-growing genotypes within a silver birch, Betula pendula population. We exposed cloned saplings of 17 genotypes with slow, medium or fast height growth to reduced insect herbivory, using an insecticide, and to increasing resource competition, using naturally varying field plot grass cover. We measured shoot and root growth, ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal production using ergosterol analysis and soil N transfer to leaves using N-15-labelled pulse of NH4+. We found that fast-growing genotypes grew on average 78% faster, produced 56% and 16% more leaf mass and ergosterol, and showed 78% higher leaf N uptake than slow-growing genotypes. The insecticide decreased leaf damage by 83% and increased shoot growth, leaf growth and leaf N uptake by 38%, 52% and 76%, without differences between the responses of fast-growing and slow-growing genotypes, whereas root mass decreased with increasing grass cover. Shoot and leaf growth of fast-growing genotypes decreased and EM fungal production of slow-growing genotypes increased with increasing grass cover. Our results suggest that fast growth is genotypically associated with higher allocation to EM fungi, better soil N capture and greater leaf production, and that the tradeoff of fast growth is sensitivity to competition, but not to insect herbivory. EM fungi may have a dual role: to support growth of fast-growing genotypes under low grass competition and to maintain growth of slow-growing genotypes under intensifying competition.
Subject: Allocation cost
Betula
EM fungi
Herbivory
Resource competition
BETULA-PENDULA ROTH
ROOT TRAITS
MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
HABITAT SPECIALIZATION
GENETIC-VARIATION
PLANT-RESISTANCE
LIFE-HISTORY
LONG-TERM
LEAF
HERBIVORE
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
11831 Plant biology
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