Diverse and active archaea communities occur in non-disinfected drinking water systems-Less activity revealed in disinfected and hot water systems

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Inkinen , J , Siponen , S , Jayaprakash , B , Tiwari , A , Hokajarvi , A-M , Pursiainen , A , Ikonen , J , Kauppinen , A , Miettinen , I T , Paananen , J , Torvinen , E , Kolehmainen , M & Pitkänen , T 2021 , ' Diverse and active archaea communities occur in non-disinfected drinking water systems-Less activity revealed in disinfected and hot water systems ' , Water research x , vol. 12 , 100101 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wroa.2021.100101

Title: Diverse and active archaea communities occur in non-disinfected drinking water systems-Less activity revealed in disinfected and hot water systems
Author: Inkinen, Jenni; Siponen, Sallamaari; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Tiwari, Ananda; Hokajarvi, Anna-Maria; Pursiainen, Anna; Ikonen, Jenni; Kauppinen, Ari; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Paananen, Jussi; Torvinen, Eila; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Pitkänen, Tarja
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Helsinki One Health (HOH)
Date: 2021-08-01
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Water research x
ISSN: 2589-9147
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/333941
Abstract: The knowledge about the members of active archaea communities in DWDS is limited. The current understanding is based on high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene (DNA-based) amplicon sequencing that reveals the diversity of active, dormant, and dead members of the prokaryote (bacteria, archaea) communities. The sequencing primers optimized for bacteria community analysis may underestimate the share of the archaea community. This study characterized archaea communities at five full-scale drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), representing a variety of drinking water production units (A-E); A&B use artificially recharged non-disinfected groundwater (ARG), the other DWDS's supplied water disinfected by using ultraviolet (UV) light and chlorine compounds, C&D were surface waterworks and E was a ground waterworks. For the first time for archaea community analyses, this study employed the archaea-specific high-throughput sequencing primers for 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as a target (reverse-transcribed cDNA; an RNA-based approach) in addition to the previously used 16S rRNA gene target (rDNA; a DNA-based approach) to reveal the active fraction of the archaea present in DWDS. The archaea community structure in varying environmental conditions in the water and biofilm of the five DWDSs were investigated by taking into consideration the system properties (cold or hot water system) and water age (distance from the treatment plants) in samples from each season of one year. The RNA-based archaea amplicon reads were obtained mostly from cold water samples from DWDSs (A-B) distributing water without disinfection where the DNA-based and RNA-based analysis created separate clusters in a weighted beta-diversity analysis. The season and location in DWDS A further affected the diversity of these archaea communities as was seen by different clusters in beta-diversity plots. The recovery of archaea reads was not adequate for analysis in any of the disinfected samples in DWDSs C-E or non-disinfected hot water in DWDSs A-B when utilizing RNA-based template. The metabolically active archaea community of DWDSs thus seemed to be effectively controlled by disinfection of water and in the hot water systems by the temperature. All biofilms regardless of DWDS showed lower species richness values (mainly Nitrososphaeria class) than non-disinfected water from DWDSs A-B where several archaea classes occurred (e.g. Woesearchaeia, Nitrososphaeria, Micrarchaeia, Methanomicrobia, Iairchaeia, Bathyarchaeia) indicating only part of the archaea members were able to survive in biofilms. Thus, Archaea has been shown as a significant part of normal DWDS biota, and their role especially in non-disinfected DWDS may be more important than previously considered. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Subject: Archaea diversity
Drinking water distribution system
Chlorination
High-throughput sequencing
16S rRNA gene
16S rRNA gene transcript
BACTERIA
GROUNDWATER
PATTERNS
SILVA
11832 Microbiology and virology
1172 Environmental sciences
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