The Matter of Time

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334176

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Annila , A 2021 , ' The Matter of Time ' , Entropy , vol. 23 , no. 8 , 943 . https://doi.org/10.3390/e23080943

Title: The Matter of Time
Author: Annila, Arto
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
Date: 2021-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 13
Belongs to series: Entropy
ISSN: 1099-4300
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334176
Abstract: About a century ago, in the spirit of ancient atomism, the quantum of light was renamed the photon to suggest that it is the fundamental element of everything. Since the photon carries energy in its period of time, a flux of photons inexorably embodies a flow of time. Thus, time comprises periods as a trek comprises legs. The flows of quanta naturally select optimal paths (i.e., geodesics) to level out energy differences in the least amount of time. The corresponding flow equations can be written, but they cannot be solved. Since the flows affect their driving forces, affecting the flows, and so on, the forces (i.e., causes) and changes in motions (i.e., consequences) are inseparable. Thus, the future remains unpredictable. However, it is not all arbitrary but rather bounded by free energy. Eventually, when the system has attained a stationary state where forces tally, there are no causes and no consequences. Since there are no energy differences between the system and its surroundings, the quanta only orbit on and on. Thus, time does not move forward either but circulates.
Subject: the arrow of time
causality
force
free energy
natural selection
non-determinism
non-equilibrium thermodynamics
quantum
period
photon
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114 Physical sciences
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