The Impact of Apple Variety and the Production Methods on the Antibacterial Activity of Vinegar Samples

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334223

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Kara, M.; Assouguem, A.; kamaly, O.M.A.; Benmessaoud, S.; Imtara, H.; Mechchate, H.; Hano, C.; Zerhouni, A.R.; Bahhou, J. The Impact of Apple Variety and the Production Methods on the Antibacterial Activity of Vinegar Samples. Molecules 2021, 26, 5437.

Title: The Impact of Apple Variety and the Production Methods on the Antibacterial Activity of Vinegar Samples
Author: Kara, Mohammed; Assouguem, Amine; kamaly, Omkulthom Mohamed Al; Benmessaoud, Safaâ; Imtara, Hamada; Mechchate, Hamza; Hano, Christophe; Zerhouni, Abdou Rachid; Bahhou, Jamila
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2021-09-07
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334223
Abstract: Apple vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine as it contains many bioactive compounds. The apple variety and production methods are two factors that play a major role in determining the quality of vinegar. Therefore, this study aims to determine the quality of apple vinegar samples from different varieties (Red Delicious, Gala, Golden Delicious, and Starking Delicious) prepared by three methods using small apple pieces, apple juice, and crushed apple, through determining the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of these samples. The antibacterial activity was studied against five pathogenic bacteria: <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Klebsiella pneumonia</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i> (ATB: 57), <i>Escherichia coli</i> (ATB: 97), and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa,</i> using two methods, disk diffusion and microdilution, for determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations. The results of this study showed that the lowest pH value was 3.6 for Stark Delicious, obtained by liquid fermentation, and the highest acetic acid values were 4.7 and 4% for the vinegar of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, prepared by solid fermentation, respectively. The results of the antibacterial activity showed considerable activity of apple vinegar on the tested strains. Generally, the <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> strain appears less sensitive and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> seems to be very sensitive against all samples, while the other strains have distinct sensitivities depending on the variety studied and the method used. A higher antibacterial activity was found in vinegar obtained by the apple pieces method and the Red Delicious variety, with a low MIC and MBC recorded, at 1.95 and 3.90 µL/mL, respectively. This study has shown that the choice of both apple variety and production method is therefore an essential step in determining and aiming for the desired quality of apple vinegar.


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