Air pollution, physical activity and health: A mapping review of the evidence

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Marko Tainio, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Liang Hu, Audrey de Nazelle, Ruopeng An, Leandro M.T. Garcia, Shifalika Goenka, Belen Zapata-Diomedi, Fiona Bull, Thiago Herick de Sá. Air pollution, physical activity and health: A mapping review of the evidence. Environment International 147 (2021), 105954, ISSN 0160-4120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105954

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Title: Air pollution, physical activity and health: A mapping review of the evidence
Author: Tainio, Marko; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Hu, Liang; de Nazelle, Audrey; An, Ruopeng; Garcia, Leandro M.T.; Goenka, Shifalika; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Bull, Fiona; de Sá, Thiago Herick
Publisher: Pergamon
Date: 2021
Language: en
Belongs to series: Environment International 147 (2021), 105954
ISSN: 0160-4120
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334453
Abstract: Background Exposure to air pollution and physical inactivity are both significant risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These risk factors are also linked so that the change in exposure in one will impact risks and benefits of the other. These links are well captured in the active transport (walking, cycling) health impact models, in which the increases in active transport leading to increased inhaled dose of air pollution. However, these links are more complex and go beyond the active transport research field. Hence, in this study, we aimed to summarize the empirical evidence on the links between air pollution and physical activity, and their combined effect on individual and population health. Objectives and methods We conducted a non-systematic mapping review of empirical and modelling evidence of the possible links between exposure to air pollution and physical activity published until Autumn 2019. We reviewed empirical evidence for the (i) impact of exposure to air pollution on physical activity behaviour, (ii) exposure to air pollution while engaged in physical activity and (iii) the short-term and (iv) long-term health effects of air pollution exposure on people engaged in physical activity. In addition, we reviewed (v) public health modelling studies that have quantified the combined effect of air pollution and physical activity. These broad research areas were identified through expert discussions, including two public events performed in health-related conferences. Results and discussion The current literature suggests that air pollution may decrease physical activity levels during high air pollution episodes or may prevent people from engaging in physical activity overall in highly polluted environments. Several studies have estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in active transport environment in Europe and North-America, but the concentration in other regions, places for physical activity and for other air pollutants are poorly understood. Observational epidemiological studies provide some evidence for a possible interaction between air pollution and physical activity for acute health outcomes, while results for long-term effects are mixed with several studies suggesting small diminishing health gains from physical activity due to exposure to air pollution for long-term outcomes. Public health modelling studies have estimated that in most situations benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of air pollution, at least in the active transport environment. However, overall evidence on all examined links is weak for low- and middle-income countries, for sensitive subpopulations (children, elderly, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions), and for indoor air pollution. Conclusions Physical activity and air pollution are linked through multiple mechanisms, and these relations could have important implications for public health, especially in locations with high air pollution concentrations. Overall, this review calls for international collaboration between air pollution and physical activity research fields to strengthen the evidence base on the links between both and on how policy options could potentially reduce risks and maximise health benefits.
Description: Highlights • Air pollution (AP) and physical activity (PA) are important health risk factors; • We reviewed current evidence of AP and PA interactions for health; • PA behaviour and health effects might be moderated by AP exposure; • Epidemiological studies provide mixed results on AP and PA interaction; • More research collaboration is needed to study AP and PA relations.
Subject: air pollutants
exercise
active travel
transport
environment and public health
Subject (ysa): terveyskäyttäytyminen
fyysinen aktiivisuus
liikkumattomuus
liikkuminen
sairaudet
ilmansaasteet
terveysriskit
ilman saastuminen
liikenne
terveyskäyttäytyminen
liikkuminen
fyysinen aktiivisuus
liikenne
ilman saastuminen
sairaudet


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