Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334603

Lähdeviite

Muhammad, S.; Chaudhry, S.R.; Kahlert, U.D.; Niemelä, M.; Hänggi, D. Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury. Cells 2021, 10, 2429.

Julkaisun nimi: Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury
Tekijä: Muhammad, Sajjad; Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel
Julkaisija: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Päiväys: 2021-09-15
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334603
Tiivistelmä: Ischemic stroke is still among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite intensive advancements in medical sciences, the clinical options to treat ischemic stroke are limited to thrombectomy and thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator within a narrow time window after stroke. Current state of the art knowledge reveals the critical role of local and systemic inflammation after stroke that can be triggered by interactions taking place at the brain and immune system interface. Here, we discuss different cellular and molecular mechanisms through which brain–immune interactions can take place. Moreover, we discuss the evidence how the brain influence immune system through the release of brain derived antigens, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, chemokines, upregulated adhesion molecules, through infiltration, activation and polarization of immune cells in the CNS. Furthermore, the emerging concept of stemness-induced cellular immunity in the context of neurodevelopment and brain disease, focusing on ischemic implications, is discussed. Finally, we discuss current evidence on brain–immune system interaction through the autonomic nervous system after ischemic stroke. All of these mechanisms represent potential pharmacological targets and promising future research directions for clinically relevant discoveries.


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