Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury

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dc.contributor.author Muhammad, Sajjad
dc.contributor.author Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul
dc.contributor.author Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich
dc.contributor.author Niemelä, Mika
dc.contributor.author Hänggi, Daniel
dc.date.accessioned 2021-09-25T23:33:20Z
dc.date.available 2021-09-25T23:33:20Z
dc.date.issued 2021-09-15
dc.identifier.citation Muhammad, S.; Chaudhry, S.R.; Kahlert, U.D.; Niemelä, M.; Hänggi, D. Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury. Cells 2021, 10, 2429.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/334603
dc.description.abstract Ischemic stroke is still among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite intensive advancements in medical sciences, the clinical options to treat ischemic stroke are limited to thrombectomy and thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator within a narrow time window after stroke. Current state of the art knowledge reveals the critical role of local and systemic inflammation after stroke that can be triggered by interactions taking place at the brain and immune system interface. Here, we discuss different cellular and molecular mechanisms through which brain–immune interactions can take place. Moreover, we discuss the evidence how the brain influence immune system through the release of brain derived antigens, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, chemokines, upregulated adhesion molecules, through infiltration, activation and polarization of immune cells in the CNS. Furthermore, the emerging concept of stemness-induced cellular immunity in the context of neurodevelopment and brain disease, focusing on ischemic implications, is discussed. Finally, we discuss current evidence on brain–immune system interaction through the autonomic nervous system after ischemic stroke. All of these mechanisms represent potential pharmacological targets and promising future research directions for clinically relevant discoveries.
dc.publisher Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
dc.title Brain Immune Interactions—Novel Emerging Options to Treat Acute Ischemic Brain Injury
dc.date.updated 2021-09-25T23:33:20Z
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/entityType/JournalArticle
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/entityType/Expression
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/entityType/Expression

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