Changes in the functional features of macrophyte communities and driving factors across a 70-year period

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Lindholm, M., Alahuhta, J., Heino, J. et al. Changes in the functional features of macrophyte communities and driving factors across a 70-year period. Hydrobiologia 847, 3811–3827 (2020).

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Title: Changes in the functional features of macrophyte communities and driving factors across a 70-year period
Author: Lindholm, Marja; Alahuhta, Janne; Heino, Jani; Hjort, Jan; Toivonen, Heikki
Publisher: Springer Link
Date: 2020
Language: en
Belongs to series: Hydrobiologia 847 (2020)
ISSN: 0018-8158
Abstract: Functional homogenisation occurs across many areas and organism groups, thereby seriously affecting biodiversity loss and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined how functional features of aquatic macrophytes have changed during a 70-year period at community and species levels in a boreal lake district. At the community level, we examined if aquatic macrophyte communities showed different spatial patterns in functional composition and functional richness in relation to main environmental drivers between the time periods. We also observed each species in functional space to assess if species with certain sets of traits have become more common or rare in the 70-year study period. We found changes in the relationship between functional community composition and the environment. The aquatic macrophyte communities showed different patterns in functional composition between the two time periods, and the main environmental drivers for these changes were partly different. Temporal changes in functional richness were only partially linked to concomitant changes in the environment, while stable factors were more important. Species’ functional traits were not associated with commonness or rarity patterns. Our findings revealed that functional homogenisation has not occurred across these boreal lakes, ranging from small oligotrophic forest lakes to larger lakes affected by human impacts.
Subject: anthropogenic impact
aquatic plants
functional diversity
functional homogenisation
functional richness
temporal patterns
aquatic ecosystems
environmental changes
climate changes
biodiversity loss
functional features
boreal lake district
different spatial patterns
time periods
oligotrophic forest lakes
large lakes
human impact
70-year period
Subject (ysa): vesikasvit
ekosysteemit (ekologia)
Rights: Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

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