Testicular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma-Clinical, Molecular, and Immunological Features

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Pollari , M , Leivonen , S-K & Leppä , S 2021 , ' Testicular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma-Clinical, Molecular, and Immunological Features ' , Cancers , vol. 13 , no. 16 , 4049 . https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164049

Title: Testicular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma-Clinical, Molecular, and Immunological Features
Author: Pollari, Marjukka; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Leppä, Sirpa
Contributor organization: Research Programs Unit
HUS Comprehensive Cancer Center
Department of Oncology
Date: 2021-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 18
Belongs to series: Cancers
ISSN: 2072-6694
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164049
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/335167
Abstract: Simple Summary Testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (T-DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive lymphoma entity that mainly affects elderly men. It has a high relapse rate with especially the relapses of the central nervous system associating with dismal outcome. T-DLBCL has a unique biology with distinct genetic characteristics and clinical presentation, and the increasing knowledge on the tumor microenvironment of T-DLBCL highlights the significance of the host immunity and immune escape in this rare lymphoma, presenting in an immune-privileged site of the testis. This review provides an update on the latest progress made in T-DLBCL research and summarizes the clinical perspectives in T-DLBCL. Primary testicular lymphoma is a rare lymphoma entity, yet it is the most common testicular malignancy among elderly men. The majority of the cases represent non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with aggressive clinical behavior and a relatively high relapse rate. Due to the rareness of the disease, no randomized clinical trials have been conducted and the currently recognized standard of care is based on retrospective analyses and few phase II trials. During recent years, the tumor microenvironment (TME) and tumor-related immunity have been the focus of many tumor biology studies, and the emergence of targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors has significantly modulated the field of cancer therapies. Testicular DLBCL (T-DLBCL) is presented in an immune-privileged site of the testis, and the roles of NF-kappa B pathway signaling, 9p24.1 aberrations, and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, especially immune checkpoint expressing lymphocytes and macrophages, seem to be unique compared to other lymphoma entities. Preliminary data on the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of T-DLBCL are promising and more studies are ongoing.
Subject: testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
lymphoma immunology
tumor micro-environment
3122 Cancers
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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